INTRODUCTION Every entrepreneur looks forward to the first step in starting a business, which is giving it a legal identity by registering a company. Companies are governed by legal documents that spell out the dos and don'ts. The Memorandum of Association (MOA) and Articles of Association (AOA), also known as the company charter, define the... Continue Reading →

  Corporate Social Responsibility

  In general companies rely on societal assets to operate efficiently, as they are morally obligated to contribute back to the society. CSR in India has traditionally been seen as a philanthropy activity. As some observers have pointed out, the practice of CSR in India still remains within the philanthropic space, but has moved from... Continue Reading →

Right of Member to Copies of audited financial statement-

INTRODUCTION- The term “Company” basically means an association of a number of persons for some common object or objects. The purposes for which people may wish to make a company might differ. Buti in Legal terms, the meaning of the company might slightly differ, but not the purpose of the company, so, here a company... Continue Reading →


INTRODUCTION Books of accounts means the records maintained in order to ascertain the financial position of the companies. It is mandatory to maintain books of accounts as it helps in the disclosure of the working as well as financial position of the companies to the shareholders so that they can have a more purposeful control... Continue Reading →

Proxies during Board Meetings

The Companies Act, 2013 refers to proxies in 2 ways. The first meaning of proxy refers to an individual who has been appointed by a member to attend a board meeting on their behalf and vote in this meeting as a representative.  The second meaning of proxy is referring to a document or instrument by... Continue Reading →


INTRODUCTION: To run organization in a smooth manner, there is a need of efficiency in the organization, so it requires a systematic approach by maintaining records and registers. Statutory register is essential for an effective organization. MEANING: Statutory register contains essential information related to company’s current position and that must be accordance with Companies Act,... Continue Reading →

Jurisdiction of Civil Courts in Company Law Matters

The conclusion of a single lawsuit can have far-reaching consequences for a business or conglomerate of businesses, potentially damaging the interests of the company's founders, top executives, investors, and other key constituents. Lawmakers have been cognizant of the fact that speed is of the utmost essential in arbitrating corporate issues because even a single dispute... Continue Reading →

Official liquidator to make payment into public account of India

Chapter xx (sec270 – 365) of the Companies Act, 2013 (CA 2013) deals with the provisions related to winding up. Section 349 of CA 2013 provides for official Liquidator to make payments into public account of India. As per the section of 349 of company law in which it was given that “EVERY OFFICIAL LIQUIDATOR... Continue Reading →

The Stay of Suits ,On winding up Order.

Introduction When a winding up order has been released or a provisional has been passed, no suit or other legal proceedings shall be commenced or passed, or if pending at the date of the winding up order, shall be proceeded with, by or against the company, except with the leave of the Tribunal and subject... Continue Reading →


INTRODUCTION A company's dissolution is the final stage of its existence. It is the process by which the company is terminated, i.e. the process by which its corporate existence ends and it is finally dissolved. A company can be wound up by a National Company Law Tribunal ("Tribunal") or by voluntary winding up, according to... Continue Reading →


The Companies Act,2013 is a broad detailed legislation which basically governs the incorporation, dissolution, and functioning of the company. Mainly, it focuses on the pellucidity by way of detailed disclosures. Financial statement, Board’s report,etc has been mentioned under section 134 of Chapter IX of Companies Act,2013. Financial reporting is necessary for companies as it provides... Continue Reading →

What is Company Law?

Introduction Law exists for different segments in a society. It can be applied in a variety of sectors whether civil or corporate. In discharging the lawful duties, law also governs companies. In respect of companies, company law is applied to regulate different matters in relation to companies. The global business community has grown rapidly in... Continue Reading →

Different types of Share Capital

Many people buy and sell shares of companies. It is a kind of investment by the consumers. But what does it mean for a company? A simple answer is that a company issues shares to earn some capital, known as share capital. However, it is not as simple as this. The Companies Act lays down... Continue Reading →

The Companies Act

Introduction The Companies Act, 2013 passed by the parliament has received the assent of the president of India on 29th August 2013.This Act was amended and the law was passed relating to companies. The Companies act, 2013 has been notified in the Gazette in 2013. Some of the other provisions has been passed and published... Continue Reading →

Duty of Company to register Charges

DUTY OF THE COMPANY TO REGISTER CHARGES A company often raises capital to finance its mega projects and to meet the plan for business expansion. It resorts to borrowing of funds to raise capital. This corporate borrowing or obtaining loans is against creation of charge on its assets as security against the borrowings to the... Continue Reading →

Security Deposit while renting the property

"Service is the Rent we pay for the Privilege of Living on this Earth.” Introduction A security deposit is an amount that a tenant pays to the landlord at the start of the tenancy.                The sum that a tenant gives the landlord as a security deposit is paid at the beginning of the tenancy. It is... Continue Reading →


Depositories act, 1996 were introduced to overcome the challenges. Before knowing the depositories act act, 1996. We need to understand the growth of capital market, India seems the rapid growth in it, in the 21st century. In this existing system there was paper based work and issues like delays in transfers, settlements periods that were... Continue Reading →


Introduction Capital markets plays an vital role in the economy. This is the main financial security to the country. Capital market is the backbone of the country’s economy. Heart of economic growth is in the capital market. How the regulation of capital market was done I.e. mainly responsible for the development of industrial and commercial... Continue Reading →


MEANING OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Intellectual property rights are an exclusive right given to the creator over the use of his/her creation. Intellectual property rights are associated with intangible assets owned by a person or company and protected against use without consent. Intellectual property can consist of Patents, Industrial design, Logos, Trademarks, Business or trade names,... Continue Reading →


MEANING The consumer buying process or consumer decision making process is the process by which consumers evaluate and identify their needs; analyse to solve these needs and collect information; evaluate alternatives available options and make a purchasing decision and lastly evaluate their purchasing decision post purchase. For example: when we are buying a car, we... Continue Reading →

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