Res Judicata in Code of Civil Procedure.

Section 11 of the Code of Civil Procedure deals with the concept of Res Judicata, it states that no court shall try any suit or issue in which the matter directly and substantially in issue has been directly and substantially in issue in a former suit between the same parties, or between parties under whom... Continue Reading →

State Privilege in India

According to Section 123 in the Indian Evidence Act, no one shall be permitted to give any evidence derived from unpublished official records relating to any affairs of State, except with the permission of the officer at the head of the department concerned, who shall give or withhold such permission as he thinks fit. From... Continue Reading →

Section 106 and Section 101- Indian Evidence Act, 1872

In civil litigation, the burden of proof of the parties refers to the fact that the parties need to produce evidence to prove the existence of the facts they claim. Section 101 states that whoever desires any Court to give judgment as to any legal right or liability dependent on the existence of facts which... Continue Reading →

Tort Law in India: Seriously underdeveloped.

In the course of history, tort law has undergone the evolution from homomorphic revenge to damage compensation, fault liability to multiple liabilities, absolute liability to relative liability, and then absolute liability. Since modern times, the statutory codes of continental Europe have established the status of tort law, while the tort law in the United Kingdom... Continue Reading →

Legal Family structure: Oppressive and heteronormative

In Indian society, the institution of the family is ingrained in sociocultural sexism having heteronormative parochial views where monogamy takes supersedence. There is no single definition of what constitutes a family. However, it is recognized that a family is an integral unit of society formed by interpersonal relationships. The broader and widely accepted definition in... Continue Reading →

The Handmaid’s Tale (TV Show)

The story takes place in Gilead, where the birth rate has dropped sharply. Women with childbearing potential were selected as "handmaidens," deprived of all freedom. After being re-educated, they were replaced with new names and uniforms and were assigned to families in power. Among them, they serve as a bridging bridge for couples. The protagonist... Continue Reading →

Landmark IBC judgements.

In the landmark case of Essar Steel v Satish Kumar Gupta, it was given by the court that there is no residual equity jurisdiction in the Adjudicating Authority or the Appellate Tribunal to interfere in the merits of a business decision taken by the requisite majority of the Committee of Creditors, provided that it is... Continue Reading →

Movie Review: Earth (1947)

The movie Earth is directed by Deepa Mehta and is based on the novel Cracking India by Bapsi Sidhwa. It is based on partition history and is looked at through the narration of an innocent 8-year-old Parsi girl living in Lahore named Lenny however, it was later revealed that it is the future and older... Continue Reading →

The difference between domestic relationships and civil and legal relationship: Balfour v. Balfour [1919]

The essential difference between domestic relationships and civil and legal relationship is that the former does not have the intention of being bound by law, nor does it have the intention to conclude a legal relationship. As a result, the beneficiary of the act of a domestic relationship does not assume the legal obligation to... Continue Reading →

Creamy layer in reservation and related cases.

The creamy layer refers to the small section of privileged individuals who are part of the socially backward class, however, are not socially backwards and occupy the topmost position in the socio-economic hierarchy of that particular class. This concept is limited to Other Backward classes (“OBC”) only. Excluding the wealthy and advantaged is the only... Continue Reading →

Important Public Interest Litigation cases.

During the emergency period, the Supreme Court was the only guardian of the Constitution and after the widespread denial of rights during the period, it became essential for the supreme court to assure the people of their rights and to rebuild its reputation. The nationwide need for a stronger institution with promoted legal services was... Continue Reading →

Abusive and damaging tropes in dramas.

In East Asian and South Asian dramas especially harassment and abusive behaviour are shown synonymous with being romantic. Deep trauma in the male leads life is justified by the media's method of representation which formalises the perpetrator as a deeply troubled individual with a dark past who is then separated from the general public, thereby... Continue Reading →

Dalit legal activism in contemporary India. 

In ancient Indian society, a person's status, occupation, and all aspects of life were closely related to his caste. Brahmins (priests) have the highest status, Kshatriya (princes) are second, Vaishya (merchants or peasants and herdsmen), and Sudras (servants) have the lowest status. In addition to these, there are untouchables who were living at the bottom... Continue Reading →

Neoclassical, Keynesian and Marxian economic theories.

Economic theories attempt to make us understand how economies work. They shape different responses to economic cycles. Neoclassical, Keynesian, and Marxian theories contradict each other in basic ways, for eg. adopting neoclassical theory would lead to no government intervention in regards to the capitalist economy, whereas Keynesian theory would lead to a more state interventionist... Continue Reading →

Does the GDP capture well-being of the economy? Everything you need to know and alternatives to GDP.

The goal of economics is to promote well-being. Economic development cannot be considered the same as economic output, along with that people's welfare should be considered. However, GDP was never intended to measure welfare or well-being. It only measures the objective data by measuring a country’s economic output which accounts for the total number of... Continue Reading →

Arabic music and musical instruments.

Arabic music has a long history which has rich emotions and beautiful tunes. Some people compare it to a source of longing and poetry. After the Abbasid establishment, Baghdad became the political, economic and cultural centre of the Arab world, Arab music has entered a golden age. The most famous musicians at this time were Ibrahim Mosili and Ishak... Continue Reading →

Government budget deficit in an open economy.

An open economy is an economy that interacts freely with other economies around the world by buying and selling goods and services in the world product market and also buys and sells capital assets in the world financial market. It has free interaction with foreign sectors. A government budget deficit occurs when the government spendings... Continue Reading →

Internet shutdown and the right to Freedom of Speech and Expression.

The Internet and social media have gradually gained importance as a source of dissent and activism in recent political protests. It includes the role of both, dialogue and mobilization and has a considerable influence on citizen participation. It has become a new aspect of contemporary political protests. It is also a virtual medium for people... Continue Reading →

Exclusive jurisdiction: Requirements and important cases. 

Exclusive jurisdiction is that which confers sole power on one court or tribunal to try, deal with and decide a case. It is given in Section 9 of the Code of Civil Procedure, The Courts shall have jurisdiction to try all suits of a civil nature excepting suits of which their cognizance is either expressly... Continue Reading →

The power of owning your identity.

Self-determination is a value judgment based on one's inner values, and human inner values are associated with the identity that "this is me.” To be identified and feel pride in one's identity, it is necessary to self proclaim the same. In the first place, when we decide by ourselves, the “self” is formed in the society... Continue Reading →

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