elements of crime

Crime is an unlawful act or omission of such an act which causes harm to the society as a whole and such an act is punishable by the state or the law.   Elements of Crime There are mainly four essential elements of crime: Human BeingMens reaActus reusInjury Human Being The first and foremost element... Continue Reading →

stages of crime under ipc

Crime means the commission of an act that is prohibited by law of the land. An act will be called crime when both mens rea (guilty mind) and actus reus (guilty act) are present. The execution of crime involves four stages. The first is the intention to commit a crime. The second stage involves the... Continue Reading →


Introduction A legally enforceable contract is called a valid contract. In a valid contract, all the parties are legally sure to perform the contract. If one of the parties refuses to perform the contract, the opposite party can take an action in a very court of law against such party. An agreement must possess some... Continue Reading →


The term voyeurism is derived from the French word voir which means to see. When someone intervenes into private space of other person without his/her permission where the person is expecting no one to watch him/her while performing an act is known as voyeurism. A voyeur is a person who derives sexual gratification from observing... Continue Reading →


Fundamental duties refer to the moral obligations of all citizens to help promote a spirit of patriotism and to uphold the unity of India. Carrying out the fundamental rights are expected from the citizens. Fundamental duties are set in part IV-A of Indian Constitution. The Supreme Court of India makes it obligatory of each and... Continue Reading →


The India Democracy has three pillars which are legislature, Executive and Judiciary. Legislature main function is enactment and formulation of laws. Executive a system of checks and balances ensures that no organ wields excessive power. Administration of justice is the main function of judiciary. India has a strong legal system which is divided into different... Continue Reading →


The word ‘Hindu’ is derived from the Sanskrit word Sindhu which is the designation for the Indus River. The word Hindu was first appeared in the Old Persian language. Hindu law is the code of laws applied to Hindu, and other communities which are Jains, Sikhs and Buddhists. The rights and obligations of a Hindu... Continue Reading →


Different school of thoughts arose due to the emergence of various commentaries on Smriti and Shruti. These commentaries varied from one part to another part of the country. The two school of Hindu law are: Mitakshara SchoolDayabhaga School Mitakshara School Except West Bengal and Assam Mitakshara school exists throughout the India. It is one of... Continue Reading →


Culpable homicide and Murder are two most perplexing terms in Indian Penal Code, 1860. Culpable homicide is under Section 299 of the IPC, 1860 and Murder is under Section 300 of the IPC. Culpable homicide is the genus while murder is the species. There is a very thin line between culpable homicide and murder. Both... Continue Reading →


Mutual agreement between partners forms a partnership firm. A firm is said to be in partnership when two or more people work together and shares the profit gained from the business as well as bears the losses too. However, in a partnership firm each and every partner may not work equally, may not gain the... Continue Reading →


Environmental Degradation is one of the grave issues happening in our ecological system. Our environment is getting deteriorated day by day. Environmental degradation is the reduction of the environment’s capacity to meet social and ecological objectives and needs. Environmental degradation causes due to both man-made as well as natural factors. Various factors that cause environmental... Continue Reading →

Types of Partnership Firm

A firm is a for profit organisation or a company that buys and sells products and/or services to consumers. According to Section 4 of Indian Partnership Act, 1932 Partnership is defined as an association or the relation between two or more person who has agreed to share profits of a business carried on by all... Continue Reading →


Section 76-106 under Chapter IV of Indian Penal Code, 1860 the general exceptions are mentioned as a defence under Indian Law. An act will be called crime when it constitutes both the essential elements of a crime i.e., Mens Rea (guilty mind) and Actus Reus (guilty act). If any act is done without both the... Continue Reading →


Fundamental Rights are those rights given to the citizens of India. These rights are mentioned under Part III from Articles 12-35 of Indian Constitution. They are offered irrespective of age, caste, gender, religion etc. There are six fundamental rights provided to the citizens of India. Right to equality, Right to Freedom, Right against Exploitation, Right... Continue Reading →


Disaster is a sudden hazardous change in the environment which causes great destruction to that area as well as the surrounding area which is being affected by the disaster. World Health Organization has defined disaster as any sudden occurrence of the events that cause damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life, deterioration of health and... Continue Reading →

sources of muslim law

Who are Muslims? People who practice Islam religion are called Muslims. Islam’s basic principle says that God is one and Muhammed is the Prophet of God. Muslim law is derived from Quran and other recorded sayings by Prophet Muhammad. Muslim law is originated in Arabia. Muslim laws are personal law which is applied to Muslims... Continue Reading →

purna swaraj

The purna swaraj declaration or declaration of the independence of India was propagated by the Indian National Congress on 26th January 1930, settling the congress and Indian nationalists to protest for complete independence or self-rule from the British rule. Honorable pandit Jawaharlal Nehru hoisted the Indian national flag on 31st December 1929 on the embankment... Continue Reading →

population explosion

Population explosion is a term referred to expeditious growth in population of the world. It is calculated from the difference between the birth rate and the death rate. It is estimated that by next ten years the human population will grow by one billion people. This expeditious growth in population results into both economic and... Continue Reading →

plaint under cpc: particulars and rejection

A Plaint is a legal document or memorandum filed by the plaintiff whereby he discloses a cause of action arose in his favour due to the act or omission on the part of defendant. The content of the civil suit is laid out in a plaint. Hence, it is the very first step towards the... Continue Reading →


Terrorism is a term which is very broad in meaning and cannot be stated by one definition. People who involve in such activities have their own definition to this term. In general, terrorism point towards the criminal and brutal activities which are performed by individual or group of individuals or an organization to fulfill their... Continue Reading →

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