Doctrine of Constructive Notice

Doctrine of Constructive Notice The doctrine of constructive notice is the most important doctrine in the company law. According to this doctrine, the outsiders to the company are presumed to be well-known with regard to the Articles of Association of the company. The reason for the same is that the articles of association is a... Continue Reading →

Fundamental Duties

Fundamental Duties are provided under Part IV-A of the Constitution. Part IV-A contains only one article, i.e. Article 51-A. Fundamental Duties are provided as a reminder to the citizens that while there are fundamental rights of every citizen, there are some duties which every citizen must perform. The Article 51-A provides 10 Fundamental Duties for... Continue Reading →

Salient Features of the Constitution

The Constitution of India is the supreme law of the country and every citizen has to abide by the Constitution. The salient features of the Indian Constitution are as follows:- Lengthiest Constitution of the World The Constitution of India is the lengthiest and most detailed written Constitution of the world. The Indian Constitution consists of... Continue Reading →

Prospectus and its Types

Prospectus is any document by which a company invites the applications for the issue of its shares or debentures. As per the Companies Act, a prospectus is any document described or issued as such and also includes red herring prospectus referred to in Section 32 or a shelf prospectus referred in Section 31 or any... Continue Reading →

Making of the Constitution

In 1934 M.N. Roy (Manabendra Nath Roy) officially demanded for creation of the Constituent Assembly whose objective is to create the Constitution of India. In 1935, the Congress accepted the proposal of M.N. Roy and a Constituent Assembly was created. In the year 1938 members of the Constituent Assembly were elected by adult franchise. Later... Continue Reading →

Fundamental Rights

The fundamental rights in the Constitution are given in Part 3 of the Constitution from Article 12 to Article 35. Fundamental rights are the rights which are granted by any country to its citizens. The Fundamental Rights are taken from the United States’ Constitution. These are the basic rights which are given to every citizen.... Continue Reading →

Articles of Association

The Articles of association is the document which defines the purpose for which the company is formed. The Articles of Association defines the rules and regulations for the internal management. The Articles of association forms the company’s constitution along with the memorandum of association. The Articles of association cannot go beyond the powers which are... Continue Reading →

Rights and Responsibilities of a Consumer

Need for Consumer Protection Act A consumer is any person who buys any goods or services for their personal use. In recent times, due to unfair trade practises it has become a necessity to bring a law which would protect the consumers from being cheated. Therefore, an act called the Consumer Protection Act was created... Continue Reading →

Shares and its Types

A share is a unit of ownership which represents an equal proportion in the company’s capital. A share gives equal claim on profits and losses of the company. A share represents the ownership in the company. Shares are of two types, mainly, preference shares and equity shares. When a person buys any shares in a... Continue Reading →

Memorandum of Association

A memorandum of association is the charter of a company. Memorandum is the legal document of the company and is prepared during the registration process of the company. The memorandum of the company defines the scope of the business activities and also the information about the shareholdings of the companies. The memorandum of association defines... Continue Reading →

Types of companies

Companies are divided into many types. Some of them are as follows:- Statutory Companies A statutory company is a company which is created by a special Act or provision of Parliament or State Legislature. The main intention of creating these types of companies is to provide public services. Some of the examples of statutory companies... Continue Reading →

Amendments in Companies Act

Since the commencement of the Companies Act in the year 1956, there have been many amendments in the Act, out of which major amendments are of the year 2000, 2011, 2013, 2015 and 2017. The Companies (Amendment) Act, 2000 The Companies (Amendment) Act, 2000 came into force on 13th of December, 2000 and is the... Continue Reading →

Grounds for Refusal of Registration for Trademark

In India trademarks are registered under the Trademarks Act, 1999. For the registration of a trademark the applicant needs to file a trademark application with the Registrar of Trademarks. The Registrar may accept the application or may reject it if he finds any fault to it. There are certain trademarks which cannot be registered. These... Continue Reading →

Types of Trademarks

Trademarks are of various kinds like product mark, collective mark, certificate mark, service mark, sound mark, pattern mark, etc. There are many forms of trademarks, but the purpose of all the trademarks is the same, i.e. to enable the consumers to identify the goods and services of a manufacturer from that of their competitors. The... Continue Reading →

Indian Companies Act, 1956

The Companies Act, 1956 is an act enacted by the Parliament of India in the year 1956. It received the assent of the Parliament on 18th of January, 1956, and the act commenced on 1st of April, 1956. The Companies Act is an act to consolidate and amend the laws relating to companies and certain... Continue Reading →

Trademark Registration

What is a Trademark? A trademark is a word, symbol, logo, phrase, or another device mark which can be identified as a source of a good or a service which distinguishes it from that of the competitors. Trademark can be any symbol, phrase, or word which can be easily recognizable and it also denotes a... Continue Reading →

Judicial Separation under Hindu Law

Judicial separation is incorporated under Section 10 of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. This section deals with the judicial separation and the consequences that occur from it. A marriage is not terminated by a decree of judicial separation. It merely puts the obligations of conjugal duties to an end. After the issue of a decree... Continue Reading →

Voidable Marriages under Hindu Law

Any marriage solemnized either before or after the commencement of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 shall be voidable at the option of the aggrieved party and can be annulled by a decree of nullity if any of the conditions mentioned in Section 12 of the Act are satisfied. The grounds mentioned in Section 12 for... Continue Reading →

Void Marriages under Hindu Law

Section 11 of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 lays down the conditions in which a marriage between persons is regarded as void ab initio. As per the Section, any marriage solemnized at the commencement of this Act shall be if it contravenes any of the conditions which are specified in Clauses (i), (iv) and (v)... Continue Reading →

Conditions of a Valid Hindu Marriage

Under Old Hindu Law There are only three essential conditions for a valid marriage as per the old Hindu Law:- Identity of caste between the parties Marriage under the Hindu Law is considered to be illegal if the bride and the bridegroom does not belong to the same caste. During the British rule various legislative... Continue Reading →

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