What is a State?

Article 12 defines the term ‘State’ as used in different Articles of Part III of the Constitution. It says that the context otherwise requires the term ‘State’ includes the following – The Government and Parliament of India, i.e. Executive and Legislature of the Union.The Government and Legislature of each State, i.e. Executive and Legislature of... Continue Reading →

Difference Between American Formalism and American Realism

Difference between American Formalism and American Realism Sociological Movement of Law – It is an organized critique of American Legal Formalism. This movement was sought to replace the American legal formalism with American legal realism, which was considered to be more pragmatic, predictive and positivistic. The American civil war and the World War – I... Continue Reading →

Witnesses, Examination and Cross Examination

INTRODUCTION The examination of witnesses is an integral part of the criminal trial. Witness testimonies are of the most reliable evidence because the person giving the statements has personally witnessed the event happen.  A witness is said to be competent when there is nothing in law to prevent him from appearing in the court and... Continue Reading →

Diverse Dimensions of Science

DIVERSE DIMENSIONS OF SCIENCE Science has a very important role to play in everyone’s life. It has radically transformed our life.  Even the constitution of India talks about developing scientific temper as one of our fundamental duties.Peculiar facet of science , especially the philosophy of science has impacted the methodologies of diverse disciplines including law.... Continue Reading →

Divorce under Muslim Law

INTRODUCTION Amongst all nations of antiquity, divorce was regarded as natural corollary of marital rights. Islam is the first religion in the world which has expressly recognized the termination of marriage by way of divorce. In India the divorce was recognized after the passing of Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. Under Muslim law there is no... Continue Reading →

Society and Technology

Society and Technology A society is an organised group of person associated together for the purpose such as social, political and religious while technology on the other hand is an application or even sometimes seen as object. Technology have very much impacted the society. The relationship between technology and society is reciprocal. Society drives technological... Continue Reading →

Sociology of Science : G.S. Aurora

This article is authored by G.S. Aurora. In the introductory part three basic questions posed by social scientist are discussed which are as follows – the first centres around the structure and function of relationships within or between groups or categories, the second is concerned with the relationship between an individual's biography and the group's... Continue Reading →

General Defences under Tort

When an action is brought against the defendant by the plaintiff which covers all the essentials of that tort, the defendant would be liable. But he can avoid his liability by taking plea of some defences. Defences are of two types – specific offence and general defence. Specific defence are peculiar to some particular wrongs,... Continue Reading →

Revision Petition & Review Petition

INTRODUCTION Human Judgement is not infallible. Errors cannot be ruled out despite taking all provisions for ensuring fair trial and just decision. The Code of Civil Procedure and The Code of Criminal Procedure therefore provide for “Appeals”, “Revision”, “Reference”, “Review” ( Specifically provided in Civil cases). The very fact that the decision of lower court... Continue Reading →

Equality before Law

Introduction Article 14 to 18 of the Constitution guarantees the right to equality to every citizen of India. Article 14 embodies the general principles of equality before law and prohibits unreasonable discrimination between persons. Article 14 declares that the ‘State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or protection of laws within... Continue Reading →

Human Development Index

Human Development Index Although economies were able to articulate differences between growth and development, it took some more time when the right method of measuring development could be developed. It was the established fact that the goal of the progress goes beyond the mere ‘increase in income.’  International bodies such as UNO (United Nations Organisation),... Continue Reading →

COVID-19 And Agricultural Reforms

The pandemic had caused serious economic consequences for the economy and had invited multiple disruptions. The government launched a major push towards self-reliance by announcing the “Atmanirbhar Abhiyan” in May 2020. Reforms The Campaign included three historic policy decisions towards the agricultural reforms. Essential Commodities Act amended – the Act of 1955 was amended to... Continue Reading →

Deglobalisation

DEGLOBALISATION Globalisation refers to the economic, social and political integration of nations. Economic globalisation can be seen in the exchange of goods. It can also be seen in the rising movement of people and capital around the world. However globalisation is under attack these days from all quarters. Also the fundamental challenge posed by the... Continue Reading →

Concept of Marriage under Hindu Law

INTRODUCTION In the era of man's ascendancy to power, the institution of marriage came into existence as an  union. No other people have endeavoured to idealize the institution of marriage as the Hindus have done. In the patriarchal society of rig vedic Hindus, marriage was considered as a sacramental union. In the hindu cutsom wife... Continue Reading →

India’s Nuclear Programme

Atomic Energy is the energy produced by atoms, which is also referred as Nuclear Energy. It is created during nuclear reactions. It is obtained by either Nuclear fission or fusion. Nuclear fission is the process in which heavy nucleus is broken down into two or more medium heavy fragments. It is used in nuclear reactor... Continue Reading →

Right of Private Defence is available only against an offence

Introduction Section 96 to 106 of the Indian Penal Code states the law relating to the right of private defence of person and property. Section 97, 98 and 99 are of general nature while sections 100, 101, 102 and 106 are concerned with defence of body, Sections 103, 104 and 105 with defence of property.... Continue Reading →

Sources of Public International Law

Sources of Public International Law can be classified into – (1) International Conventions; (2) International Customs; (3) General Principles of Law recognized by civilized nations; (4) Decisions of Judicial or Arbitral Tribunals; (5) Juristic Works and (6) Decisions or Determinations of the Organs of International Institutions. The first five sources are mentioned in Article 38... Continue Reading →

Economic Reforms

On July 23 1991, India launched a process of economic reforms in response to a fiscal and balance of payment crisis. The reforms were historic as they were going to change the nature of the economy in the coming times. Back in the mid 1980s the government had taken is first step to economic reforms.... Continue Reading →

Nature and Justiciability of Directive Principles of State Policy

Introduction  Directive Principles of State Policy (also referred as DPSP in short) are enumerated in Part IV of the Constitution from Articles 36 to 51. The concept of Directive Principles is not indigenous to India and was borrowed from Article 45 of the Irish Constitution (it had borrowed from the Spanish Constitution) by the framers... Continue Reading →

Public Expenditure

Public expenditure is spending made by the government of a country on collective needs and wants such as pension, provision, infrastructure, etc. Until the 19th century, public expenditure was limited as laissez faire philosophies believed that money left in private hands could bring better returns. In the 20th century, John Maynard Keynes argued the role... Continue Reading →

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