Effectiveness of Covid-19 Vaccines against the Delta Variant

The B.1.617.2 (delta) variant of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), has contributed to a surge in cases in India and has now been detected across the globe, including a notable increase in cases in the United Kingdom. The effectiveness of the BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1... Continue Reading →

Doctrine of Eclipse

The Doctrine of Eclipse is a doctrinal principle that advocates the concept of fundamental rights being prospective. If any law made by the Legislature is inconsistent with Part III of the Constitution, then that law is invalid and inoperative to the extent of it being overshadowed by the Fundamental Rights. The laws are hidden by... Continue Reading →

Will under Muslim law

Conventionally, a Will, also called ‘testament’ is an implement which enables a person to dispose of his own property to someone whom he wants to give after his death. A Will comes into effect only after the death of the person who created the Will. A Will is a legal declaration of transfer of property... Continue Reading →

lambda variant – Covid

Like the Delta variant, the Lambda variant, which has now been detected in more than 25 countries, is feared to be more transmissible than the original virus, although it is not yet established because of lack of enough studies on it. It has been the dominant variant in Peru and other countries of South America.... Continue Reading →

solitary confinement

Solitary confinement can be defined as confinement of a prisoner which secludes him from the sight and communication of other prisoners. It is a form of punishment wherein a prisoner is isolated from any form of human conduct. In the case of Kishore Singh Ravinder Dev v. The State of Rajasthan, the Supreme Court described... Continue Reading →


Why did we evolve the capacity for different attachment styles? Why would an infant become detached when faced with an unresponsive caregiver? We can imagine that such caregivers, especially in the evolutionary past, might have been unresponsive because they were busy trying to survive in a dangerous or resource-scarce environment. A detached and self-reliant attachment... Continue Reading →

Chronic Inflammation is Insidious and Dangerous

Most of us think of inflammation as the redness and swelling that follow a wound, infection or injury, such as an ankle sprain, or from overdoing a sport, “tennis elbow,” for example. This is “acute” inflammation, a beneficial immune system response that encourages healing, and usually disappears once the injury improves.“Unlike acute inflammation, which benefits... Continue Reading →

Punitive Damages in Personal Injury Cases

Punitive damages are also called exemplary damages. They are awarded both to deter the defendant and others from conduct similar to the conduct that gave rise to the lawsuit, and to punish the defendant. They are often awarded to set a public example. Punitive damages are awarded infrequently, but they may be appropriate in many... Continue Reading →

strict liability

Strict liability is a theory that imposes legal responsibility for damages or injuries even if the person who was found strictly liable did not act with fault or negligence. This theory usually applies in three types of situations: animal bites (in certain states), manufacturing defects, and abnormally dangerous activities. In some jurisdictions, the theory of... Continue Reading →

privy council

A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically, but not always, in the context of a monarchic government. The word "privy" means "private" or "secret"; thus, a privy council was originally a committee of the monarch's closest advisors to give confidential advice on state affairs The authority... Continue Reading →

Night-time panic attacks: what are they? And why do they happen?

Night-time panic attacks, or ‘night terrors’ as they are sometimes called, are surprisingly common, but they can feel overwhelming if you’ve never experienced one before. Characterised by symptoms including a racing heart, sweaty palms or a shortness of breath, night-time panic attacks are intense, unexpected bouts of anxiety that wake you up in the middle... Continue Reading →

citizenship for sale

A controversial “golden passports” scheme run by the Pacific nation of Vanuatu saw more than 2,000 people, including a slew of disgraced business people and individuals sought by police in countries all over the world, purchase citizenship in 2020 – and with it visa-free access to the EU and UK, the Guardian can reveal. Among... Continue Reading →

Mexico crisis

Last winter the carnage in Mexico City was palpable. Black smoke billowed around the clock from overwhelmed cemetery crematoriums. Funereal bottlenecks forced families to take the remains of their loved ones to other parts of the country for timely disposal. In hospitals the bodies were backlogged on gurneys and in autopsy rooms. It took until... Continue Reading →

Spanish flu pandemic

The Spanish Flu did not originate in Spain, though news coverage of it did. During World War I, Spain was a neutral country with a free media that covered the outbreak from the start, first reporting on it in Madrid in late May of 1918. Meanwhile, Allied countries and the Central Powers had wartime censors... Continue Reading →

plant as vaccine factories

Plant-based vaccines eliminate the need for bioreactors because they themselves are the bioreactors. Plants can be grown in climate-controlled, pharmaceutical-grade greenhouses that keep out bugs and pests but do not require sterile conditions. In Medicago’s greenhouse in Raleigh, North Carolina, two mechanical arms pick up a steel tray of 126 juvenile Nicotiana Bentham plants, a... Continue Reading →

How a warmed world influences extreme rainfall

A slow-moving low-pressure system has been dumping rain over western Europe since early this week, according to AccuWeather. Parts of Germany saw more rain in a day than they would typically see in the entire month. The same system led to floods in London on Monday; it is now heading to southern Europe. Scientists see... Continue Reading →

How Early Humans Survived the Ice Age

The most recent ice age peaked between 24,000 and 21,000 years ago, when vast ice sheets covered North America and northern Europe, and mountain ranges like Africa's Mt. Kilimanjaro and South America's Andes were encased in glaciers. At that point our Homo sapiens ancestors had migrated from the warm African heartland into northern European and... Continue Reading →

three mile island

At 4 a.m. on March 28, 1979, the worst accident in the history of the U.S. nuclear power industry begins when a pressure valve in the Unit-2 reactor at Three Mile Island fails to close. Cooling water, contaminated with radiation, drained from the open valve into adjoining buildings, and the core began to dangerously overheat.... Continue Reading →

the deadly heatwave

The summer of 2021 is already shaping up to be one for the record books, with much of the American west gripped by historic heatwaves, extreme drought, and the threat of large wildfires that have already begun to burn across the region. The crisis has also extended into Canada, with temperatures in British Columbia soaring... Continue Reading →

The Last Official Death of WWI Was a Man Who Sought Redemption

The six-hour delay between the armistice signing and World War I’s official end cost the lives of nearly 3,000 soldiers, including one American in the war’s final minute. Shortly after 5 a.m. on November 11, 1918, German, British and French officials gathered inside a railroad dining car in a dark forest north of Paris and... Continue Reading →

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