Right to Information Act, 2005


The right to records (RTI) is an act of the Parliament of India which units out the rules and techniques concerning citizens’ right to statistics. It changed the former Freedom of information Act, 2002. below the provisions of RTI Act, any citizen of India may additionally request information from a “public authority” (a frame of presidency or “instrumentality of kingdom”) that’s required to reply expeditiously or within thirty days. In case of count involving a petitioner’s lifestyles and liberty, the records must be provided within forty-eight hours. The Act also requires each public authority to computerize their records for huge dissemination and to proactively post sure categories of records so that the citizens want minimal recourse to request for information formally.

The RTI invoice changed into passed through Parliament of India on 15 June 2005 and came into force with impact from 12 October 2005. every day on a median, over 4800 RTI programs are filed. inside the first ten years of the graduation of the act, over 17,500,000 packages were filed.

although proper to statistics is not covered as a fundamental right in the constitution of India, it protects the essential rights to Freedom of Expression and Speech under Article 19(1)(a) and right to lifestyles and personal Liberty beneath Article 21 guaranteed by means of the charter. The authorities underneath RTI Act 2005 are called public authorities. the general public information Officer (PIO) or the first Appellate Authority within the public government perform quasi-judicial function of deciding on the utility and attraction respectively. This act become enacted so that it will consolidate the essential proper inside the Indian charter ‘freedom of speech’. in view that RTI is implicit inside the right to Freedom of Speech and Expression underneath Article 19 of the Indian constitution, it’s far an implied fundamental right.


Scope:

A receipt for fee of a rate for gathering data underneath RTI act
The Act extends to the complete of India. [a][7] It covers all of the constitutional authorities, consisting of government, legislature and judiciary; any group or body hooked up or constituted with the aid of an act of Parliament or a state legislature. it is also described inside the Act that bodies or government hooked up or constituted by order or notification of suitable authorities including our bodies “owned, managed or extensively financed” with the aid of authorities, or non-government businesses “drastically financed, at once or in a roundabout way by using price range”.


Amendment:


The proper to records Act 2019 passed on July 25, 2019[14] modified the phrases and situations of provider of the CIC and statistics Commissioners on the centre and in states.[15] It have been criticized as watering down the independence of the fact’s commissions.
Fees:
A citizen who wants to are seeking for some information from a public authority is required to ship, at the side of the application (a Postal order or DD (demand draft) or a banker’s cheque) or a courtroom stamp payable to the accounts Officer of the public authority as price prescribed for looking for information. If the person is from a disadvantaged network, he/she want no longer pay.[18] The applicant will also be required to pay further rate toward the cost of offering the data, info of which shall be intimated to the applicant by the PIO (Public facts Officer) as prescribed by means of the RTI ACT.

Governance And Process:
The right to data in India is ruled by using two primary our bodies:

critical statistics fee (CIC) – leader information commissioner who heads all the critical departments and ministries- with their very own public records officers (PIO)s. CICs are directly beneath the President of India.[17]
kingdom statistics Commissions – nation Public data officers or SPIOs head over all the state branch and ministries. The SPIO office is immediately underneath the corresponding nation Governor.
nation and primary information Commissions are impartial our bodies and valuable records commission has no jurisdiction over the nation statistics commission.

Attacks on RTI activities in India:


RTI activists are inclined human rights defenders (HRD s) in India. not like other HRD s a majority of the RTI activists are not a part of an company; they regularly act on my own, moved by way of anger at corruption and other unlawful activities. RTI activists are prone due to the fact they stay in the same regions as public government and political leaders who do now not want facts approximately their sports to be disclosed.[7] For the most element, human rights defenders get hold of media attention best whilst killed or seriously injured. while proceedings are made with the aid of RTI activists, law enforcement employees (who often work with corrupt officers) do no longer take suitable movement [2]. The right to statistics Act, 2005 gives insufficient protection to whistleblowers.[3] The vital records commission and the kingdom data Commissions are not mandated to address such threats or attacks or to offer protection while wished.[8] attacks on RTI customers have no longer ceased despite guidelines from numerous records commissions and country governments to defend them from damage.
Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (CHRI) information factors to over 310 instances[26] across India where human beings had been both attacked, physically or mentally stressed or had their assets damaged because of the statistics they sought underneath RTI. The statistics throws up over 50 alleged murders and suicides that had been immediately connected with RTI applications filed.[27] R.T.I. Act 2005 applies to both relevant in addition to kingdom governments. It additionally covers the acts and functionaries of the public government.

there’s a consensus felt that there is a want to amend the RTI Act to offer for the safety of these seeking statistics below the Act.[28] The Asian Centre for Human Rights recommends that a separate bankruptcy, “safety of these in search of records under the (RTI) Act”, be inserted into the Act.

safety measures advised consist of:

obligatory, instantaneous registration of proceedings of threats or attacks against RTI activists on the primary facts report and placing such FIRs earlier than the Justice of the Peace or choose of the region inside 24 hours for issuance of directions for protection of those underneath threats and their own family members, and periodic assessment of such protection measures
accomplishing inquiry into threats or attacks by way of a police officer not under the rank of Deputy Superintendent of Police/Assistant Commissioner of Police to be concluded inside ninety days and we also use RTI and get its gain.


Cases
Central Public Information Officer, Supreme Court of India vs. Subhash Chandra Agarwal, 2020, here the apex Court dismissed the appeal and upheld the Delhi High Court judgment by directing the Central Public Information Officer, Supreme Court to furnish information regarding collegium decision-making, personal assets of judges, correspondence with CJI. No general decision came up relating to the universal disclosure of above-mentioned information.
UPSC v. Angesh Kumar, AIR 2018 here UPSC was directed to disclose the raw marks as well as the model answers of the questions in the examination.

References:
Right to Information Act, 2005 – Wikipedia
About RTI – Read Complete Guide by RTI Experts – OnlineRTI.com
Right To Information (RTI) Act/DEPARTMENT OF Expenditure | Ministry of Finance |Government of India (doe.gov.in)

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