The Constitution of India came into force from 26th of January 1950 which is also celebrated as Republic Day in India. Indian Constitution is one of the most unique Constitutions in the world. It was drawn from different countries like USA,UK, France, South Africa etc by a body of representatives called the Constituent Assembly headed by Dr.BR Ambedkar.
The Preamble of the Constitution is an introductory affirmation that explains about the aims and objectives of the Constitution. It can be indicated that the Preamble is the prime source of authority which confirms that the Constitution lies with the people of India.
The Preamble declares India to be a Sovereign, Secular, Socialist, Democratic & a Republic state. The objectives mentioned in the Preamble are justice, liberty, equality, fraternity, unity and integrity of the nation.
Some Key Words mentioned in the Preamble of the Constitution are:
• We the people of India: this indicates that the people of India has the ultimate sovereignty over the country.
•Sovereign: This term indicates that India has it’s own independent authority and no other external force can intervene into the internal matters of the county.
•Secular: This term indicates that every religion in India gets equal rights, opportunities and protection from the state.
•Socialist: This term indicates the attainment of socialistic ends through democratic means.
• Democratic: This term indicates that India is a democracy country where people choose their own authority and it follows the motto,” Of the People, For the People, By the People.
•Republic: This term indicates that the head of the state is elected by the people of the country where they hold supreme power . The President of India is an elected head of the state
SOME OF THE SALIENT FEATURES OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION:
1. The lengthiest constitution in the world:
The Indian Constitution is the lengthiest and one of the most detailed written constitution in the world. It consists of an approx of 470 Articles, 25 parts and 12 schedules. The Vastness of the country and peculiar problems relating to aspects of language have added to the bulk of the constitution.
2. Parliamentary form of Government:
The Constitution of India established Parliamentary form of Government which was drawn from the British model in toto. The core of Parliamentary form of government is it’s responsibility to the Legislature.
3.Unique blend of rigidity and flexibility:
Even though most written Constitutions are rigid in nature but the Indian Constitution is sufficiently flexible. In rigid constitutions it takes especial procedures to amend the constitution but flexible Constitutions it can be easily amended with customary legislative processes.
Fundamental Rights are incorporated in part-III of the Indian Constitution which is regarded as a distinguishing feature of a democratic state.The state cannot pass any law that hindrances the Fundamental Rights of it’s citizens incorporate in part-III of the Constitution.
The Constitution Act (42nd Amendment) ,1976 introduced a code of ten “Fundamental Duties”for the citizens again with the Constitution (86th Amended) Act,2002 the code has become of 11 elements. The duties are to serve as a constant reminder for the citizens to abide by.
6.Directive Principles of State Policy:
The Directive Principles of State Policy are incorporated in part -IV of the Indian Constitution, unlike the Fundamental Rights these Principles are not Justiciable. These Principles are some aims and objectives taken up by the states under the governance of the central.
7.Seperation Of Power:
There is a provision of Seperation of Power in the Indian Constitution which are mainly between the three significant organs of the government i.e the Legislature, Executive and Judiciary which signifies that the three wings of the government should operate independently from each other on their own field.
The Constitution of India provide dual polity but it only provides Single Citizenship for the whole of India, Unlike the American Constitution which provides dual citizenship i.e the citizen of America and the citizen of state but India has only one citizenship in India i.e the Citizen of India.
India is a secular state which means India has no official religion of it’s own. Anybody can practice any religion of their choice without any hindrance by the government. India treats every religion equally. Article 25-28 of the Indian Constitution gives a concrete shape to the concept of secularism.
An Uniform Adult Suffrage system has been adopted and incorporated in the constitution of India unlike the old system of communal electorates.This system has given right to every individual above 18 years of age the right to vote and choose their representatives.
Conclusion: The Constitution of India has many Salient features which makes it diverse from other constitutions of the world more because the Constituent Assembly took inspiration and adopted from different Constitutions around the world. The Articles in the Constitution help in the overall ruling of the state and it’s citizens.
Book: Constitutional law of India, Pandey.N.J.Dr (57th Edition)
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