Special provisions for some states


Part XXI of the Constitution deal with special provision of some states. Some states in India are chosen as these because of backwardness in area or more development required. The provision of some states came up when Gadgil formula was passed in 1969. A states require unequivocal treatment due to their non-consistency, conflicting development, hereditary districts, backwardness, and people’s desires to achieve uniform turn of events, correspondence, and advance far reaching development. These exceptional approaches, of course, have been made as a result of moderate safeguarded revisions.

The 12th part of the constitution of India abide of articless on provision which are special such as “Article 370, Articles 371, 371A, 371B, 371C, 371D, 371E, 371F, 371G, 371H, and 371J”.These sections explains special provisions which are given to some Indian states. But in year 2019 the GOI cancelled out the extraordinary status provided to the state J and K. Be that as it may, the extraordinary arrangements (Articles 371) without a doubt to upwards of 11 States keep on existing as a piece of the Constitution. This enormous number of game plans consider the special states of the particular states and notice all of the securities as per those circumstances. Late enhancements show that States like Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Bihar, Orissa  are mentioned under the Special Category Status from the Government.

History of Special provision

In 1969[1], the fifth Finance Commission introduced the opportunity of Special Category Status, seeing that few portions of the country had by and large been discouraged on the other hand, with others.

• To permit unequivocal treatment to lamented states as central assistance and cost diminishes. The National Development Council has really given assistance to various states under the Central Plan[2].

• In starting there were only 3 state which were introduced in special provision which are state of J and K, Nagaland and Assam. These states were given special status in the 4th five yr plan. But for Kashmir things changed in year 2019 when the president of India announced that the special plan or provision which was given to Kashmir will be abolished and Article 370 will be scrapped.

• In the period of 1974 to 1979, some more states were also given this special provision category. They are Meghalaya, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Tripura and Manipur. Till the year 1990 more states were added under special provision category which included Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand was also provided special provision in the year 2001.

Differentiation between 370 Article and 371 Article:

Article 370 had its own advantages and disadvantages. But the main issue about this article was that when it was applied in Kashmir it was giving Kashmir its own power of constitution rather than getting included under Indian constitution. People of the state Kashmir it was like they were having a dual citizenship status one of Kashmir and one of India. RTI, RTE, CAG, and most of Indian rules were not significant there. That’s why the GOI in 2019 scrapped the 370 Article while 371 Article is still a part of Constitution of India till this day.

Who Grants The Special Category Status To The States?

The National Development Council allows the extraordinary class status based on certain models which are as per the following:

  1. Uneven and troublesome territory.
  2. Low populace thickness.
  3. Presence of a sizable ancestral populace.
  4. Vital area along global boundaries.
  5. Monetary and infrastructural backwardness
  6. Non-suitable nature of state funds.
  7. “The Prime Minister, union ministers, chief ministers, and members of the planning commission make up the National Development Council, which directs and reviews the commission’s activities”.

What is Special provision provided to states?

Common Central Assistance inclines toward the Special Category States[3] (Currently, 11 states) appreciate 30% of the interminably out help and the rest 70% is separated between the flood states. Help is in addition captivating for the Special Category Status. Common Central Assistance (NCA) is apportioned 90% capabilities and 10% credits for these states anyway it is 30% separations and 70% advances for the states which are not under the Special Category.

In 2011-12, a proportion of 57% of moves, amounting to Rs. 2.5 lakh crore[4] was being made which was the best trade from the Center to the states.

A piece of the Major Benefits of Special Category Status

90% of the State[5] use on every one of the plans kept up with by the Center and outside help is bear by the Central Government and the extra 10% is given as a good representative for the State on 0% interest.

• For Central resources, express treatment is given to the States.

• To attract encounters, concession on the concentrate liability is given to the States.

• The Center’s gross spending plan of around 30% goes to the Special Category States.

• Benefits of liability help plans and obligation exchanging might benefit from some intervention by the States.

• These States are exonerated from yearly responsibility, corporate assessment, etc.

• Unused money is given forward to the going with monetary year.

Remarkable Provision yet not excellent treatment

This enormous number of game plans think about the uncommon states of individual states, and set out a considerable number of unequivocal safeguards that are thought of as huge for these states. In these extent of Articles from 371[6] to 371J, Article 371I, which oversees Goa, hangs out as in it consolidates no game plan that can be thought of “excellent”. Article 371E, which oversees Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, too, isn’t that “remarkable”. The phenomenal game plans put down in Article 370 going before it was changed were obviously significantly more clearing than the outstanding courses of action for various states, portrayed in Articles 371, 371A-H, and 371J.

Exceptional Provision For Mizoram

53rd Amendment Act, 1986 added Article 371-G, make the going with amazing plans for Mizoram:

The Acts of Parliament associating with the going with issues wouldn’t fundamentally influence Mizoram alongside in the event that the State Legislative Assembly so decides. The issues include: Religious or social shows of the Mizos; Mizo standard rule and strategy; Administration of commonplace and policing decisions as demonstrated by Mizo standard rule; and Ownership and Transfer of land. The Legislative Assembly of Mizoram should contain something like 40 people.

Exceptional Provision For Arunachal Pradesh

55th Amendment Act, 1986 added Article 371-H, make the going with exceptional plans for Arunachal Pradesh:

The Governor of Arunachal Pradesh will have exceptional commitment with respect to law and order in the state. In the arrival of this commitment, the Governor, following advising the Council of Ministers, rehearses his solitary judgment and his decision is convincing. This excellent commitment of the Governor will stop when the President organizes. The Legislative Assembly of Arunachal Pradesh should include no less than 30 people.

Exceptional Provisions for Karnataka

Under Article 371J by 98th Amendment Act, 2012, the Governor has exceptional obligation concerning the game plan of free improvement sheets for the Hyderabad-Karnataka area. Plan is similarly there that a report on the working of these sheets ought to be put before State Legislative Assembly reliably. There should be a comparable piece of resources for the developmental utilization of the actually alluded to locale. Close to it, reservation of seats in enlightening and fit status foundations, as well as the booking in State Government posts in the locale, will be obliged individuals having a spot with the Hyderabad-Karnataka district.


The explanation for the exceptional courses of action is to safeguard the interest of unequivocal in switch regions what’s more to move rule of agreeableness and rule in the States. It relatively plans to shield and set aside the social and cash related interests of the hereditary people staying in these States. In any event, first no astounding system was given to the States. These plans were added by coming about changes made interfacing with the update of the States or the Union areas. Article 371I which controls Goa and Article 370E which oversees Andhra Pradesh and Telangana are not actually ‘striking’ and ‘phenomenal’ uninhibitedly.

[1] https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/special-provisions-for-some-states/

[2] https://prepp.in/news/e-492-special-provisions-for-some-states-indian-polity-upsc-notes

[3] https://www.insightsonindia.com/polity/functions-and-responsibilities-of-the-union-and-the-states-issues-and-challenges-pertaining-to-the-federal-structure-devolution-of-powers-and-finances-up-to-local-levels-and-challenges-therein/devolution-of-powers-and-finances-up-to-local-levels-and-challenges-therein/special-provisions-to-some-states/

[4] https://www.brainyias.com/special-provisions-for-some-states/

[5] https://www.youthkiawaaz.com/2020/06/how-the-constitution-preserve-unity-and-diversity/

[6] https://byjus.com/free-ias-prep/part-xxi-constitution-india-special-provisions-states/

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