SCHEME OF MERGER UNDER FEMA

INTRODUTION:

                            Foreign exchange management act is formed to regulate the foreign exchange in India. It is a set of regulations that empowers the Reserve Bank of India to pass regulations and enables the Government of India to pass rules relating to foreign exchange in tune with the foreign trade policy of India.

WHAT IS SCHEME OF MERGER:

                                                       ‘Cross border merger’ has been defined in the FEMA Regulations as “any merger, amalgamation or arrangement among Indian corporation and overseas agency according with Companies (Compromises, Arrangements and Amalgamation) Rules, 2016 notified under the Companies Act, 2013”. Interestingly, while the FEMA Regulations intend to cover go border ‘merger, amalgamation or arrangement’ (which might include demergers), Section 234 of the Companies Act and Rule 25A of the Companies Merger Rules, which deal with move border mergers, only seek advice from ‘mergers and amalgamations’ with none explicit mention of ‘association’. Since the Companies Act is the governing regulation relating to compromises, arrangements, and amalgamations, it appears that pass border demergers or other varieties of arrangement aren’t accredited, even though they’re contemplated within the FEMA Regulations.

INBOUND MERGER:

In an inbound merger,

(1) the resultant company may issue or transfer any security and/or a foreign security, as the case may be, to a person resident outside India in accordance with the pricing guidelines, entry routes, sectoral caps, attendant conditions and reporting requirements for foreign investment as laid down in Foreign Exchange Management (Transfer or Issue of Security by a Person Resident outside India) Regulations, 2017.

Provided that

where the foreign company is a joint venture (JV)/ wholly owned subsidiary (WOS) of the Indian company, it shall comply with the conditions prescribed for transfer of shares of such JV/ WOS by the Indian party as laid down in Foreign Exchange Management (Transfer or issue of any foreign security) Regulations, 2004;

where the inbound merger of the JV/WOS results into acquisition of the Step-down subsidiary of JV/ WOS of the Indian party by the resultant company, then such acquisition should be in compliance with Regulation 6 and 7 of Foreign Exchange Management (Transfer or issue of any foreign security) Regulations, 2004.

(2) An office outside India of the foreign company, pursuant to the sanction of the Scheme of cross border merger shall be deemed to be the branch/office outside India of the resultant company in accordance with the Foreign Exchange Management (Foreign Currency Account by a person resident in India) Regulations, 2015. Accordingly, the resultant company may undertake any transaction as permitted to a branch/office under the aforesaid Regulations.

(3) The guarantees or outstanding borrowings of the foreign company from overseas sources which become the borrowing of the resultant company or any borrowing from overseas sources entering into the books of resultant company shall conform, within a period of two years, to the External Commercial Borrowing norms or Trade Credit norms or other foreign borrowing norms, as laid down under Foreign Exchange Management (Borrowing or Lending in Foreign Exchange) Regulations, 2000 or Foreign Exchange

Management (Borrowing or Lending in Rupees) Regulations, 2000 or Foreign Exchange Management (Guarantee) Regulations, 2000, as applicable.

Provided that no remittance for repayment of such liability is made from India within such period of two years;

Provided further that the conditions with respect to end use shall not apply.

(4) The resultant company may acquire and hold any asset outside India which an Indian company is permitted to acquire under the provisions of the Act, rules or regulations framed thereunder. Such assets can be transferred in any manner for undertaking a transaction permissible under the Act or rules or regulations framed thereunder.

(5) Where the asset or security outside India is not permitted to be acquired or held by the resultant company under the Act, rules or regulations, the resultant company shall sell such asset or security within a period of two years from the date of sanction of the Scheme by NCLT and the sale proceeds shall be repatriated to India immediately through banking channels. Where any liability outside India is not permitted to be held by the resultant company, the same may be extinguished from the sale proceeds of such overseas assets within the period of two years.

(6) The resultant company may open a bank account in foreign currency in the overseas jurisdiction for the purpose of putting through transactions incidental to the cross-border merger for a maximum period of two years from the date of sanction of the Scheme by NCLT.

OUTBOUND MERGER:

In an outbound merger,

(1) a person resident in India may acquire or hold securities of the resultant company in accordance with the Foreign Exchange Management (Transfer or issue of any Foreign Security) Regulations, 2004.

(2) a resident individual may acquire securities outside India provided that the fair market value of such securities is within the limits prescribed under the Liberalized Remittance Scheme laid down in the Act or rules or regulations framed thereunder.

(3) An office in India of the Indian company, pursuant to sanction of the Scheme of cross border merger, may be deemed to be a branch office in India of the resultant company in accordance with the Foreign Exchange Management (Establishment in India of a branch office or a liaison office or a project office or any other place of business) Regulations, 2016. Accordingly, the resultant company may undertake any transaction as permitted to a branch office under the aforesaid Regulations.

(4) The guarantees or outstanding borrowings of the Indian company which become the liabilities of the resultant company shall be repaid as per the Scheme sanctioned by the NCLT in terms of the Companies (Compromises, Arrangement or Amalgamation) Rules, 2016.

Provided that the resultant company shall not acquire any liability payable towards a lender in India in Rupees which is not in conformity with the Act or rules or regulations framed thereunder.

Provided further that a no-objection certificate to this effect should be obtained from the lenders in India of the Indian company.

(5) The resultant company may acquire and hold any asset in India which a foreign company is permitted to acquire under the provisions of the Act, rules or regulations framed thereunder. Such assets can be transferred in any manner for undertaking a transaction permissible under the Act or rules or regulations framed thereunder.

(6) Where the asset or security in India cannot be acquired or held by the resultant company under the Act, rules or regulations, the resultant company shall sell such asset or security within a period of two years from the date of sanction of the Scheme by NCLT and the sale proceeds shall be repatriated outside India immediately through banking channels. Repayment of Indian liabilities from sale proceeds of such assets or securities within the period of two years shall be permissible.

(7) The resultant company may open a Special Non-Resident Rupee Account (SNRR Account) in accordance with the Foreign Exchange Management (Deposit) Regulations, 2016 for the purpose of putting through transactions under these Regulations. The account shall run for a maximum period of two years from the date of sanction of the Scheme by NCLT.

REFERANCE:

Aishwarya Says:

I have always been against Glorifying Over Work and therefore, in the year 2021, I have decided to launch this campaign “Balancing Life”and talk about this wrong practice, that we have been following since last few years. I will be talking to and interviewing around 1 lakh people in the coming 2021 and publish their interview regarding their opinion on glamourising Over Work.

IF YOU ARE INTERESTED IN PARTICIPATING IN THE SAME, DO LET ME KNOW.

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In the year 2021, we wrote about 1000 Inspirational Women In India, in the year 2022, we would be featuring 5000 Start Up Stories.

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