When it comes to law there is one very important term that has comes up that is public interest litigation. The name behind introducing this concept is Justice P.N Bhagwat i.e. Prafulla Chandra Natwarlal Bhagwat. Honorable justice was the 17th chief justice of India whispered our country from 12th July 1885 until his retirement on 20th December 1986. As I have mentioned above, he has come up with 2 concept that is public interest legislation & absolute liability in India he was the 1st person to introduce us with this concept when we speak about public interest litigations on it means that through law or with the help of court of law there would be protection that would be given to public in a great extend such as pollutions, terrorism and road safety and when it comes to second concept that’s justice P.N Bhagwat introduce it was absolute liability it means if a person is made liable without any excuse or considering the nature of ondol that is called absolute liability. He is also one of the longest second supreme court judges including the chief justice to the tenure in our country India.
When we came to Justice P.N Bhagwat’s personal and early life we came to know that honorable Justice was born in Gujarat and his father named Justice Natwarlal H. Bhagwat was also a Supreme Court Judge and when we came to his sibling, he had an elder brother named Jagdish Bhagwat who was an economist and also the neurosurgeon in Mumbai. Honorable justice studied in one of the named collages that is Elphinstone collage by pursuing mathematics(honors). Honorable justice took his degree from Bombay university in 1941. In 1942, he was being arrested for participating in UP gang Indian independence MDUT and he also went underground for 4months.
He later received a law degree from law university after completed his law degree in government law collage Bombay. After his education was done, he was married to Prabhavati and he had 3 daughters namely Pallavi, Parul and Sonali. At present Pallavi Bhagwat is managing partner of leading Indian law firm. Justice Bhagwat was a devotee of the popular Indian guru Sathya Sai baba and he was also the member of their community or trust which was known as Sathya Sai Baba trust and justice Bhagwat was the member of that trust until he was dead. When we come towards one of the very important things of every person that is the carrier and even, he was one of the named judges of Gujarat and also gave many important judgements when it comes to his law carrier.
Justice Bhagwat has begun practicing in Bombay high court as an advocate. When it comes to 1960 Justice Bhagwat was appointed as the judge Gujarat high court. In September 1967 in justice P.N Bhagwat was appointed as the chief justice of Gujarat high court and even on the very important position of a state was handled by him it may be for temporary duration and that to he got this opportunity of becoming governor for occasion that is from 7th December 1967 to 25th December 1973 and the 2nd time duration started from 17 march 1973 to 3rd April 1973 even by July 1973 justice was appointed as a judge of supreme court of India and august 1985 he was chief justice of India justice was appointed by Giani Zali Singh and on 12th July 1983 honorable justice joined as 17th chief justice of India and honorable justice was proceeded by Y.V Chandra Chand and succeeded by R.S Pathak . India’s second highest civilian award that is Padma Vibhushan for his public affair honorable justice was awarded with Padma Vibhushan in 2007. Some of the important judgement that was being heard or honorable justice P.N Bhagwat was a part were Harbor campus case controversy.
One of the controversial judgements given by honorable justice Bhagwat was In ADM sulab pur V. shivkant case which was popularly refined as ADM Jabalpur case or habeas campus case in this case it was stated that during emergency the fundaments rights which are provided to us they would be suspended and this judgement receive a lot of criticism because it has reduced all the important attached to fundamental rights which are mention through Indian constitution. the bench who gave the decision even honorable justice Bhagwat was a part of it and they concluded the decision in favor of Indira Gandhi government but when Janta party came up again honorable justice Bhagwat change the decision and when Indira Gandhi in 1980 came they gave decision in their favor Bhagwat was criticized for his change of standards and favoring the change of stands
Makena Gandhi VS Union of India
Makena Gandhiwas requested, through an official letter from the Regional Passport Officer, Delhi on 2 July 1977 to return her passport within seven days “in public interest” under section 10(3) of the passport act of (1967). Gandhi, who had been issued Indian passport on 1 June 1976, in return asked the office to give statement of reason in accordance with section 10(5) to which the office replied that “in the interest of general public” the Government had decided to not furnish any such statement further. Under Article 15 of the Indian constitution, which deals with Right to Freedom, Gandhi filed a writ petition in which justice Bhagwati and Justice V.R Krishnan iyer ruled in favour of Gandhi.
SP Gupta V Union of India
In the above case he gave the judgement that the courts has to bring up with some innovative methods and some stratergies so that court can provide justice to a large amount of masses who are being denied with the basic human rights specially to the people whom don’t get their freedom and liberty has no meaning.
There are few objective that are given in preamble of our Indian constitution such as justice – social, political and economic,liberty of thought ,expression , belief and faith so the person behind this objective and ideology is justice P.N Bhagwati .As we all know that because of poverty in our country there are many people who don’t come for hekp to the court of justices so he brought up with the concept “justice to all” this concept was really difficult to bring up in the mind of society but still he gave his best with it. In additional being the justice of India he not only played a important role in indian judgement but through as justice he also served in the best way in abroad also. He was appointed as Chairman of the Legal Aid Committee to give suggestions to the State government on legal aid programs. His yearning to support the oppressed had become almost a fixation. He used to travel to the interiors of rural areas to get to know the real India. Whatever work he has performed in the field of legal aid and whatever reputation and frame he had it was appreciated in the best way in India by the public . there was one judgement that was given which benefited a trial village a lot so all resident people there decide to give that village name with the name of justice Bhagwati so they decided to give it as “Bhagwati puram”.the contribution that justice bhagwati in human rights ,legal aid and law that he made which benefited a lot of public hence the president of the world congress recognized him all over the world on human rights which was held in the year 1989.he was also appointed to the International Independent Group of Eminent Persons to observe the working of the Presidential Commission of Inquiry into the alleged infringement of human rights in Sri Lanka.
Justice bhagwati died on 15th june 2017 at the age of 95 after being illed for a long duration and after his death our present prime minister Narendra modi condoled his death calling him “stalwart of india’s legal fraternity ”.
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