Understanding The Mangrove Forests:
– Mangroves are the plant-communities occurring in inter-tidal zones along the coasts of subtropical countries and Tropical countries.
– Mangrove forests perform multiple ecological functions like production of woody trees, provision for habitat, food and spawning grounds facilities for fin-fish and shellfish, provide provision of habitat for different beautiful and rare birds and other valuable rare fauna; protection of coastlines and accretion of sediment to creating the new land.
– Among the states and UT, province has the foremost effective and highest % of area under total Mangrove cover followed by Gujarat and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
– The India State of Forest Files Report gives the data about mangroves and their conditions within the country.
Understanding The Sunderbans:
– It is a limiteless contiguous mangrove forest ecosystem within the coastal region of Bay of Bengal cover India and Bangladesh on the world largest delta Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers.
– It is the Indian largest mangrove forests.
– The large field has long had the status of a forest reserve, but conservation efforts in India were increased up with the making of the Sundarbans Tiger Reserve in 1973.
– Sundarban National park was developed and established in 1984, constitutes a core region within the tiger reserve; it absolutely was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1987.
– Sunderbans was identify as a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 2001.
– Sundarban Wetland in India was recognised under the ‘Wetland of International Importance’ under the Ramsar Convention of January 2019.
– Sunderban parkland is known for its wide range of fauna, including 260 bird species and is home to many rare and globally threatened wildlife species kind of like the Estuarine Crocodile, Royal tiger, Water lizard, Gangetic Dolphin and ridley Turtles.
– The Sunderbans Delta is that the one and only and solely mangrove forest within the full and whole world inhabited by Royal Bengal tigers.
– For its preservation, World Wide Fund (WWF) India and Discovery India joined hand with the state govt. and native local communities within the Sundarbans in 2019.
Environmental Issues on Sunderbans:
(1) Water level Rise-The increasing water level within the core and main areas of Sundarbans made a worst effect on the human settlement within the nearby land and blocks. The increase in water level has moved the people of their main sources of livelihood – agriculture and fishing. plenty of agricultural land is being submerged under the water.
(2) Salinity-The river water salinity rate slowly increases with time and more rivers were suffering from the salinity within the Sundarbans. Sundarbans mangroves spread across the Delta of Ganges. The increasing in salinity is caused thanks to the scarcity of the water within the Ganges H2O. The reduction within the speed of flow of river has resulted within the high saline water in upstream areas. The high salinity zone is situated within the South-Western corner of the Sundarbans.
(3) Change in Global Climate-Constantly Together and along with the rising temperature , precipitation is additionally showing an increasing trend within the Sundarban area region. Variability within the climatic parameters has increased within the past few years and constantly increasing . The comfortable climate would cause of rising the speed of cyclone and amount of rainfall.
(4) Cyclones– Already Sundarbans are being a cyclone prone area, there’s an absence and negligence of disaster shelters. There has been sharply rising in the cyclonic storms hitting the Sundarbans in the last few years. During the Cyclone Aila in 2009, the waves crossed the limits of the embankment and entered the plains. many of folks were affected because of the shortage of drinking and irrigation water and destruction of the agriculture land. a good damage was caused to the property and crops thanks to the cyclones.
(5) Pollution-Thanks to a significant disposal of solid waste from the nearby cities, the Ganges Riverdoesn’t carry water to the Sundarbans. a large amount of domestic and industrial wastage are carried by the tributary rivers. many mud disposing of from the harbours also causes pollution. The emergence and rise of Haldia Port Complex, be a great foil disembarkment in East side of the India.
(6) Catching of Fish–The main reason and problem of over fishing has put the hazard for environment. The population or stock of the fish is decreasing due to the combo of overexploitation and climatic changes. The density population of the fish in shallow waters reduced tremendously. thanks giving to the excessive and very high demand for the prawn and prawn products, the local people dropped the standard of fishing practices and adopted the prawn seed culture.
(7) Cutting of Wood-There’s an illegal increase within the scaling and cutting down of trees and woods within the Sundarbans. People living nearby the forests within the South 24 – Paraganas are directly involved within the trading of the wood. Deforestation by cutting of trees is taking an increase in most of the areas of Sundarbans which can ultimately lead into the loss of the biodiversity
Human effect on Sunderbans:
> Human Made Disaster: 2014 Oil Spill Around 350 tonne of oil was spilled within the river of Sundarban on 9 December 2014. The spills occurred in a protected area of the river where the rare dolphins are live. The oil spill disturbed the aquatic lifeline and resulted within the death of some of specific aquatic animals specially the dolphins. The oil spill is generating a serious threat to the forest’s food web. the 1st level of the food web are dying to the effect of the excessive oil spill. thanks to the oil spill, dolphins, saltwater crocodile, Bengal tigers, leopards, chitals face a severe threat.
> Oil spills are one among and the most important human caused disasters that affect the people alsobecause the environment of Sundarbans. The oil spill of 2014 was caused due to Southern Star VII, a Bangladeshi ship created lots of destruction especially to the aquatic life. Earlier Old traditional agricultural methods and techniques were practiced. But in present scenario , people are adopt the techniques of using pesticide and chemicals which are affecting the flora and fauna of the main region. The dumping of large number industrial and domestic waste into the river systems also are possessing a hazard to the environment. There are concerns raised and stress regarding the construction and development of 1320 megawatt coal-fired power station near the Sundarbans.
Sunderbans Delta is the world’s largest delta which is form by Ganga – Brahmaputra and Sunderban National is park is resident of the Royal Bengal Tiger. The large variety of Flora and Fauna is found in Sunderbans. The Sunderbans is shrinking slowly by flood in Sunderban Delta and By Rising water level which is direct threat flora and fauna live on land . Many Human Activities like cutting trees and hunting animals etc is affecting the biodiversity of Sunderbans,with immediate effect Human activities is need to stop. If the climate change Drastically the day is near when we lost Largest mangrove forest and lost the biodiversity of the Sunderbans. Government should take strict actions and make strict laws to protect the Sunderbans. It is also Every individual duty to save the environment by different methods.
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