- The idea to constitute the Constituent Assembly for the formation of the Indian Constitution was given by Manabendra Nath Roy commonly known as M.N. Roy, in 1934.
- The Constituent Assembly was formed on 16th may 1946 under the Cabinet Mission Plan.
- The first sitting of the Constituent Assembly was in 1946 when the Assembly was framed for a specific task. There were five basic principles on which the Constituent Assembly worked, those are- Federal structure, parliamentary form of government, permanent judiciary, fundamental rights and the country being republican state.
- The Drafting Committee was constituted on 29th August 1947 under the chairmanship of Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar to draft the Constitution of India.
- Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Constituent Assembly. He was the first lawyer of Indian belongs to a backward class. He was the chief Architect of the Indian Constitution. He was a follower of Buddhism in his later life. Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar said about the Indian Constitution as ,” first and foremost the Constitution is a Social document”. 14th April, the birth anniversary of B.R. Ambedkar is celebrated every year as Ambedkar Jayanti. ‘waiting for a visa’ is the Autobiography of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar which is 20 pages long written in the year 1935. His Autobiography is also a textbook taught in the Columbia University.
- Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar or Dr. B.R. Ambedkar or Babasaheb is known as the father of the Indian Constitution.
- The Drafting Committee comprised of 7 members: Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar, Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyangar, K.M. Munshi, N. Gopalswami, Mohammad Saadulla, B.L. Mitter and D.P. Khaitan.
- Benegal Narsing Rao or commonly known by the name of B.N. Rao, an Indian Jurist, was the Advisor of the Constituent Assembly.
- Sachinand Sinha was the oldest member of the Constituent Assembly. He was the interim President there who was elected on 11th December 1946.
- H.C. Mukherjee was the Vice President of the Constituent Assembly.
- There were only 15 women members in the constituent assembly.
- 22 Committees were formed to look after on different aspects of the Constitution.
- It took 11 sessions by the Constituent Assembly to finally draft the Constitution of India.
- First stage in drafting the Constitution:(Objective Resolution) · To make India to be a sovereign Republic · To Establish India as democratic union · All the powers of central and state government will be deprived from people · to secure all the citizens · To maintain integrity of territory · to provide adequate safeguard for minorities, backward class, SC/ST and tribal areas. · To promote international peace and security · To have for India, a rightful, honoured and dignified place in world platform Second stage in drafting the Constitution:(Various Committees) · Union powers committee: Jawaharlal Nehru · Union Constitution committee: Jawaharlal Nehru · Provincial Constitution committee: Sardar Vallabhai Patel · Advisory committee on Fundamental rights: Sardar Vallabhai Patel · Ad-hoc committee on National flag: Rajendra Prasad · Special committee to examine the Draft Constitution: Drafting Committee · Finance and house committee: Rajendra Prasad Third stage in drafting the Constitution:- Sir B.N. Rao, prepared draft Constitution which was sent to drafting committee. Fourth stage to draft the Constitution:- The draft submitted in the fourth stage was checked in depth and certain recommendations were made by the drafting committee. Fifth stage to draft the Constitution:- · After the fourth stage, the Draft received by the constituent assembly was circulated to the public for suggestions. · The drafting committee again started the discussion and resubmitted the draft of the constitution on 21st February 1948. Sixth stage of drafting the Constitution:- · Resubmitted draft was presented to Dr. B.R. Ambedkar. · The debate started and every clause on which the various objectives were raised. · Most crucial debate of the constituent assembly. Seventh stage of drafting the Constitution:- · Drafting committee makes certain changes as suggested by constituent assembly. · On 14th November 1949, the final draught was introduced in the assembly. Eighth and ninth stage of drafting the Constitution:- · At this stage, the drafted constitution underwent a second reading. · There were again various amendments suggested by the assembly, however most of them were rejected. · At the ninth stage, the drafted constitution went through a third reading where again there were few substantive debates and speeches. There were the positive responses from the members of the assembly. · Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar also moved a motion that the constitution as settled by the assembly be passed.
- In the first draft there were more than 2000 amendments in the Indian Constitution which were later discussed and then finalized.
- The Constitution was signed by 248 members of the Constituent Assembly on 24th January 1950.
- The third reading of the constitution of India ended on 26th November 1949.
- On 26th November 1949, the final draft was ready to be enacted.
- India adopted the Indian Constitution after 2 years 11 months and 18 days after the Constituent Assembly started working on it.
- On 26th January 1930, poorna swaraj was demanded by INC at its Lahore session due to which 26th January was celebrated as “Indian Independence day” for the next 17 years. In 1947, Indian requested British to grant freedom on the same date but Lord Mountbatten chose 15th August. It was the reason, the date chosen to enforce the constitution was 26th January 1950.
- When the final constitution was drafted and signed, it was raining heavily outside, which is considered a good sign.
- The final Draft of the constitution was first signed by Dr. Rajendra Prasad and last by Feroze Gandhi.
- The original constitution in 1950 contained 395 articles divided into 22 parts and 8 schedules. Now, the articles are increasing but the last article is still the same, that is, 395.
- The preamble was adopted on 22nd January 1947, which was based on the objective resolution moved by Jawaharlal Nehru in the constituent assembly on 13th December 1946. The USA also started with “ we the people” in its preamble of the constitution.
- The constitution of India in its preamble declares India as secular, socialist, democratic, Republic and sovereign.
- Constitution of India borrowed various provisions from the other countries constitutions
- The constitution of India was written on the 16×22 inches measure sheets with a lifespan of thousand years.
- The Indian Constitution is the longest Constitution in the world which is Calligraphed with a total of 1,17,369 words in its original script.
- The original copies of the Indian Constitution which were written in English and Hindi are placed inside the library of the Parliament of India in special Helium-filled cases.
- The original Indian Constitution which is still in the Parliament was decorated by Shantiniketan, Beohar Rammanohar Sinha and Nandalal Bose, renowned artists.
- The preamble of the Indian Constitution was decorated by Beohar Rammanohar Sinha.
- The constitution was handwritten by Prem Behari Narain Raizada in a flowing Italic style with beautiful calligraphy. It took him six months to complete the calligraphy of the Constitution of India.
- On 2nd September 1953, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar said while debating about the powers of the governor that,” if I find the Constitution being misused, I shall be the first to burn it”.
- The National Emblem of India is the lion capital of
- Ashoka at Sarnath. It was adopted on 26th January 1950, the same day when the Constitution was adopted.
- The Constitution day also known as Samvidhan Divas is celebrated every year on 26th January. REFERENCES: · The constitution of India, 1950. · http://www.manupatrafast.com · http://www.airwebworld.com · The Hindu · The Indian Express · The Times of India · Wikipedia
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