Democracy, it was first introduced by Athenians in Greece during 5th century BCE. Cleisthenes a political figure of Athens born in 570 BCE is known as the father of Athenian democracy. Out of all countries in the world, 123 countries are democratic countries.
Modern democratic governments are classified into two types of government systems.
First one is Parliamentary and second one is the presidential system. India is one of the biggest democratic nations in the world and it follows the Parliamentary system. India is known for its social and cultural diversity. There are approximately 3000 castes and 9 recognized religions in India. Then there are different languages.
Even formation of states in India after Independence took place based on languages. Many states of India even have their own official languages. So, for dividing the power of decision making or law-making in such a diverse nation can only be achieved by a parliamentary system which is also known as the Westminster System which is developed in the United Kingdom.
In the parliamentary system, the executive is always responsible to the legislature. Executive in simple words means a person or body who implements or executes a plan.In government, they have the responsibility of governance and implementing laws. Prime minister and his cabinet ministers are executives and Civil Servants play an important role in implementing Executive’s decision. Legislature means the assembly, in simple words parliament who makes law.
Indian legislature has two legislative bodies which are Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. Legislative bodies like Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha pass or make laws and Prime minister and his cabinet implement those laws. They take action.
So what is the meaning of Executive (Prime Minister + Cabinet Of Ministers) they are responsible for the legislature. You can notice in the parliament sessions, Members of parliament question prime minister regarding his policies and governance. He must answer in this house whether the cabinet committee for Security took this decision or not. The Prime Minister must also explain why this contract was taken away from HAL and the Youngsters of Karnataka and he has to answer all those questions. Because he is responsible to the legislature. All members of Parliament are part of the legislature.
President of India, on the other hand, is the nominal executive. President has to take advice from prime minister and council of ministers. There are three parts of the Indian Parliament. Lok Sabha also known as the house of the people. Rajya Sabha and President.
So let us start with Lok Sabha Let us break the explanation down to three main points
First one election, Second one structure, Third one working. Let us start with first point Election. Lok Sabha is known as the house of the people because People of India directly elect Lok Sabha members. Election system used in their election is First past the post system. but it is merely, a voting method in which voters choose the candidate of their choice by Voting. Member of Lok Sabha must be above 25 years of Age. Lok Sabha member has the fixed term of 5 years.
Now the structure Article 81 of the Indian Constitution deals with the structure of Lok Sabha. The maximum number of seats allotted by the constitution to Lok Sabha is 552. Currently, there are 545 members of Lok Sabha in India. 543 are the elected through elections from Indian states and Union territories and the President of India appoints two people on the remaining two seats. There are specific numbers of seats allocated to each state and union territory based on only one-factor and that is population. The larger the population of state more the number of seats are allocated to that state. That is the reason Uttar Pradesh has the most number of seats in Lok Sabha because it is the largest Indian state by population.
Now Working After the general election, these Lok Sabha members elect one person from the Lok Sabha as their speaker and to help speaker they elect two other people as deputy speakers. Speaker maintains discipline during the sessions of Lok Sabha. Indian Prime minister is the head of Lok Sabha and Lok Sabha has the term of 5 Years. However, It can be dissolved before 5 years under some circumstances. Only the President can dissolve the Lok Sabha on the advice of Prime Minister.
For example, in the year 2004 APJ Abdul Kalam dissolved the Lok Sabha the advice of that time’s prime minister of India Atal Bihari Vajpayee.
Now let us go up to the upper house Rajya Sabha Elections Members of state legislative assembly elect Rajya Sabha members. So yes, it means Rajya Sabha members are not directly elected by voters or Public. But instead they are directly elected by the representatives sent by the people to The State Legislative assembly Which is also called Vidhan Sabbha. The President of India nominates 12 people in Rajya Sabha Structure. The maximum number of seats allocated by the constitution to Rajya Sabha is 250. Currently, there are 245 members in Rajya Sabha. Out of 245 233 members are chosen by State legislative assembly. President of India appoints remaining 12 members. He appoints these 12 people on the basis of their special knowledge or their contribution in fields like art literature social work or sports. In Indian politics, people and politicians also call it a backdoor entry. Mr. Subramniayan Swamy is an excellent example of this appointment by the president.
He is nominated, as a person of Excellence in Economics and Academics. Indian President once appointed cricketer Sachin Tendulkar where Sachin served as Member of Parliament for 6 years. Working Vice President of Indian is the chairperson of Rajya Sabha. Whereas, Lok Sabha members elect Deputy Chairperson from themselves. Rajya Sabha member has the term of 6 years His or Her age must be above 30 years. Rajya Sabha is known as the permanent house of the Parliament because it cannot be dissolved completely. In every two years, 1/3 members get retired means 1/3 members of Rajya Sabha face reelection every two years.
Now let me tell you one funny incident in 1952 the first Rajya Sabha session was held. now 2 years after that there was a serious question how do we decide who is going to retire. So, for the first couple of times, it was decided by the lottery system. Now the third factor or part of Indian parliamentary system is President. President of India is component of Parliament under article 60 and article 111. Members of Rajya Sabha and Lok sabha elect the president of India. He serves for the term of 5 Years. President’s responsibility is to examine the laws and bills passed by the parliament.
I have always been against Glorifying Over Work and therefore, in the year 2021, I have decided to launch this campaign “Balancing Life”and talk about this wrong practice, that we have been following since last few years. I will be talking to and interviewing around 1 lakh people in the coming 2021 and publish their interview regarding their opinion on glamourising Over Work.
IF YOU ARE INTERESTED IN PARTICIPATING IN THE SAME, DO LET ME KNOW.
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