Crime is a very old concept and it is transmitted to the society from generation to generation.Even today Crime play a great role in our society. It is a social evil. It is generated by the society, people and the society also suffers a lot because of crime committed by its members. The rising wave of crime to-day has caused alarm any the public. Nobody is safe to-day. The world is full of criminals and criminal activities are on the rise through out the world to-day. With the development in science and technology criminals are using scientific techniques while committing the crime and police has been baffled by the techniques used.
Crime is an anti social and illegal behaviour to which penalties are attached. This anti social behaviour is rejected by the by the society and punished by law. Those actions which are sinful but no punishments are attached to them they are not criminal acts like anti social activities.
The concept of crime has been defined from the social political and legal stand point of view. What is a criminal behaviour in India depends upon the legal codes of a particular society and it’s people.
According to Coldwell (1956) “Those acts on failures to act that are considered to be so detrimental to the well being of a society as judged by its prevailing standards, that action regarding them cannot be entrusted to private initiative or to haphazard methods but must be taken by an organised society in accordance with tested procedures are called crime.”
CHARACTERISTICS OF CRIME IN INDIA
(1) A crime should be an act or omission of an act. In other words, a person cannot be punished for his criminal thoughts. Only when his thought is expressed in criminal action, it will be considered as a crime.
(2) The act must be voluntary and the person (criminal) has control over his actions. In other words, any act committed when the person is insane and has no control over his action cannot be a crime.
(3) The act should be intentional with a motive and intention may be general or specific, i.e. any crime committed without a specific intention, all of a sudden, out of rage or any sudden situational factor is not a crime.
(4) The act should be a violation of criminal law which is clearly different from non criminal law or civil and administrative law. This is essential because the law and order authority can thereby take action against the accused.
(5) The act should be committed without defence or justification.
CRIME WILL INCREASE IF PEOPLE FOLLOW FOLLOWING STEPS
1.) Harm to the Society and people.
3.) Bad Intension.
4.) Malfide Intension.
5.) Criminal Intension.
6.) Cause and Effect Relationship.
7.) Concurrence of Intension, Act and Conduct.
CLASSIFICATION OF CRIME
(1) Cognizable crime
(2) Non cognizable crime
TYPES OF CRIME
2.) Attempt to commit Murder.
3.) Culpable Homicide not Amounting to Murder.
4.) Rape. Nirbhaya case in India.
5.) Kidnapping and Abduction.
7.) Preparation and Assembly of Decoity.
11.) Dowry death.
12.) White collar crime.
15.) Drugs Trade.
STEPS TAKEN TO PREVENT CRIME IN INDIA
1. With advancements in the field of Criminology, we have some techniques or tools to gather scientific evidence to focus on hotspots or habitual offenders (daily basis) such that we can prevent or reduce violence.
2. The focus of the executives should be on preventing the conditions that lead people to criminality which ultimately leads to the commission of offences. This can be done through a systematic, integrated, coordinated or other approach where the punishment approach should be made the last resort.
3. In the modern area, Cyberspace has become the domain for violence. Crimes on cyberspace range from videos showing assassinations, to recruitments made for extremist groups and coercion to frauds. It is important to understand here that the Criminality has proliferated even to the web, net and it is high time now to take some strict actions against the same because it creates a lot of disturbance in social sites.
4. The governments should try to create a system based on an equilibrium state between repression or prevention and incorporate rehabilitation policies which would greatly affect the mentality of people and thereby dilute Criminality present in the minds of people. Mentality of people is one which help us to remove criminology word from India.
5. Most importantly laws should be made in such a way that Crimes could be prevented at an early stage i.e. before spreading to people or in society thereby rooting out the very Criminality which leads to the Crime.
Crime has existed in all societies, and that efforts to legislate, enforce, punish, or otherwise correct criminal behavior have not succeeded in eliminating crime. I strongly believe that once a criminal, not always a criminal. If one has regret about his past and has changed himself, one should be treated like a normal human being. Furthermore, they could help teenagers from crime while telling them about their sacrifices of time, health and family. It is also to be noted here that the crime rate is on a high only since the 1990s which clearly indicates some sort of perversion. Based upon a global observation it could also be said that the overall crime problem in India is not as serious as that in the US or Latin American countries, but still, the crime rate is on an alarming increase. In India Economic, political, and social factors play a crucial role in the commission of crimes.
Academike, Crime, Crime Rates and Control Techniques: A Statistical Analysis https :// http://www.lawctopus.com/academike/crime-crime-rates/ (last visited 14th Feb, 2020, 10:00 PM)
Wikipedia, Crime Prevention in India https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crime_prevention, (last visited 14th Feb, 2020, 10:00 PM).
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