Many people believe that India does not have robust animal conservation legislation. On the contrary, we have some of the most rigorous wildlife and habitat protection laws in the world. It is critical that all conservationists get acquainted with these rules in order to participate effectively. Before any conservation measures can be made in any environment, it is also critical to understand whose institutions govern land in India. The legal status of the land must first be determined before engaging with the appropriate authorities or agencies.


  • “Animal” includes amphibians, birds, mammals, and reptiles •“Animal article” means any article made from any captive or wild animal . Snake and crocodile skin products Ivory articles
  • “Hunting” includes capturing, killing, poisoning, trapping, injuring animals , birds or reptiles. • “Trophy” means the whole or any part of any captive or wild animal which has been kept or preserved by any means.
  • “Wildlife” includes any animal, bees, butterflies, crustacean, fish and moths; and aquatic or land vegetation which forms part of any habitat.


 The Central Government may appoint :- 

  1. A Director of Wild Life preservation. 
  2. Assistant Directors of Wild Life preservation.
  3. Other officers and employees as may be necessary. 

The State Government may appoint :- 

I. A Chief Wild Life Warden. 

II. Wild Life Wardens. • One Honorary Wild Life Warden in each district 

III. Other officers and employees as may be necessary.

  1. The Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 (Last amended in 2006)

National parks and Tiger Reserves are more severely protected by law, with almost no human activity permitted unless it is in the interest of wildlife protection. Grazing and private tenancy rights are prohibited in National Parks but may be permitted in sanctuaries at the discretion of the Chief Wildlife Warden. The revised WLPA prohibits commercial exploitation of forest produce in both national parks and animal sanctuaries, and local populations can only gather forest produce for legitimate purposes.

No wild animal, bird, amphibian, reptile, fish, crustacean, insects, or coelenterates included in the WLPA’s four Schedules may be hunted within or outside protected areas. On conviction, the penalty for hunting is imprisonment for a minimum of three years and a maximum of seven years, with a fine of not less than 10,000 rupees.

  • National Forest Policy (1998)

Forest Policy at the National Level (1998) The 1988 National Forest Policy (NFP) is primarily concerned with the sustainable use and protection of forests and enhances the Forest Conservation Act (1980). It was a dramatic change from previous forest policies, which prioritized fulfilling government interests and industrial demands for forest products over local subsistence needs. The NFP stresses the preservation of ecological balance through biological diversity protection, soil and water management, increased tree cover, effective use of forest produce, wood substitution, and guaranteeing people’s participation in accomplishing these goals.As a primary goal, it also includes fulfilling the natural resource needs of rural areas. The NFP legitimizes the customary rights and concessions of communities living in and near forests by saying that the rural poor domestic needs should take precedence over industrial and commercial demands for forest products.

  • The Environment (Protection) Act (1986)

The Environment Protection Act is a significant piece of legislation that provides for the coordination of the activities of various regulatory agencies, the establishment of authorities with adequate environmental protection powers, the regulation of the discharge of environmental pollutants, the handling of hazardous substances, and so on. The Act allowed for the legal preservation of non-forest ecosystems (‘Ecologically Sensitive Areas’) such as grasslands, marshes, and coastal zones.

  • The Biological Diversity Act (2002)

India is a signatory to the Convention on Biological Diversity. The requirements of the Biological Diversity Act are in addition to, and not in derogation of, the laws of any other forest or wildlife legislation. 

  • National Wildlife Action Plan (2002-2016)

It replaces the previous Plan, which was adopted in 1983, and was introduced in response to the need for a shift in priorities due to increased commercial use of natural resources, continued population growth of human and livestock populations, and changes in consumption patterns.

As this essay has demonstrated, India has a robust system of laws, Acts, and policies in place to protect forests and animals. It is up to citizens to thoroughly examine these and implement them correctly while undertaking conservation advocacy campaigns.

Aishwarya Says:

I have always been against Glorifying Over Work and therefore, in the year 2021, I have decided to launch this campaign “Balancing Life”and talk about this wrong practice, that we have been following since last few years. I will be talking to and interviewing around 1 lakh people in the coming 2021 and publish their interview regarding their opinion on glamourising Over Work.


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In the year 2021, we wrote about 1000 Inspirational Women In India, in the year 2022, we would be featuring 5000 Start Up Stories.

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