A foreign policy is a set of political goals that determine how a country interacts with the rest of the world. The execution of this party requires relying on political, socio-cultural, commerce, and defence ties between countries, as well as participation in multi-lateral conferences involving a large number of countries.
OBJECTIVE AND PRINCIPLES
India has adopted and pursued specific principles in order to attain the above-mentioned main objectives of its foreign policy. Article 15 of the Indian Constitution’s Directive Principles of Policy outlines some of these ideas. These principles include the promotion of international peace and security, friendly relations with other countries, respect for international law and international institutions such as the United Nations, and, ultimately, the peaceful resolution of international problems. The idea has stood the test of time and is ingrained in both international law and Indian foreign policy. Some of these principles are listed below.
Indian officials recognised the link between peace, progress, and humanity’s survival. They saw that a permanent world peace was necessary for a nation’s progress in light of the damage caused by two world wars. If there is no global peace, social and economic progress will undoubtedly be pushed to the background. As a result, Nehru, India’s founder of foreign policy, placed a great importance on international peace when formulating his policies. He promoted devotion to five guiding principles known as panchsheel while forging a peace deal with China. On April 28, 1954, Panchsheel was signed, and it has since become a guiding idea in India’s bilateral relations with other countries. Panchsheel has the following five foreign policy principles:
Mutual respect for one another’s territorial integrity and non-sovereignty.
ii) No retaliation against one another.
iii) No intrusion into each other’s personal lives.
iv) Equality and mutual benefit
v) Coexistence in harmony.
• POLICY OF NON-ALIGNMENT
The non-alignment movement (NAM) promotes neutrality and opposes military alliances. This concept grew in prominence during the Cold War, with the bulk of participants being newly independent countries. These countries signed panchsheel resolutions in Bandung, Indonesia, in 1965. The panchsheel is NAM’s basis. Belgrade hosted the first NAM submission in 1961.
Continued Relevance of non-alignment:
The non-alignment movement (NAM) is an anti-military alliance movement that favours neutrality. During the Cold War, this notion gained traction, with the majority of members being newly independent countries. In Bandung, Indonesia, in 1965, these countries signed panchsheel resolutions. NAM’s foundation is the panchsheel. In 1961, Belgrade hosted the first NAM submission. On a number of global issues, the North and the South hold opposite opinions. The NAM provides a forum for developing countries to interact constructively with developed countries.
The NAM has shown to be an important vehicle for fostering south-south collaboration.
ii) The NAM can serve as a powerful mechanism and essential forum for developing countries to engage and reflect on a number of global challenges, issues, and changes, such as the UN’s free-form status and other financial institutions’ democratic and effective governance.
• POLICY OF RESISTING COLANALISM, IMPERALISM, RACISM
India was fiercely opposed to both colonialism and racism in whatever form as a victim of both. India feels that colonialism and imperialism are a threat to international peace and security. India was the first country to bring the issue of apartheid to the United Nations in 1946. In order to convey its support for Indonesia’s independence, India called an Asian Relations Conference. Consistent efforts by India through the NAM and other international forums have yielded beneficial benefits. 14 African countries were emancipated from the yoke of coloanlism in 1964. India made serious attempts to eradicate the apartheid scourge in South Africa. On India’s recommendation, NAM launched the Africa Fund in 1986 to assist frontline victims of South African violence.
• PEACEFUL SETTLEMANT OF INTERNATIONAL DISPUTES
The unshakable trust in political solutions and peaceful resolution of international crises defines India’s foreign policy. Both state policy and the United Nations Charter uphold this idea. India has taken the lead in ending the Korean war, as well as supporting negotiated settlements of maritime disputes, Kashmir conflicts, border disputes with neighbouring countries, and other issues.
• SUPPORT TO UN, INTERNATIONAL LAW AN JUST AND EQUAL WORLD WAR
India appreciates international law and the United Nations’ objectives of sovereign equality and non-interference in other countries’ domestic affairs. India backed the UN’s disarmament efforts wholeheartedly.
OBJECTIVE OF INDIA’S FOREIGN POLICY
National interest has been the guiding notion of India’s foreign policy from the time of Nehru, who was inspired by the values of international peace, tolerance, and mutual respect among states. In practise, the concept of national interest serves as a foundation for pursuing specific foreign policy objectives. According to Appadori and MS Rajan, there are three basic objectives:
i) THE PRESERVATION OF INDIA’S TERRIBLE INTEGRITY AND INDEPENCE OF FOREIGN POLICY
A nation’s fundamental concern is territorial integrity and the protection of its boundaries from outside attack. India has finally earned its long-awaited independence from foreign rule after a long period of struggle. As a result, it was only natural for her to emphasise foreign policy independence, India’s efforts to create afro-Asian solidarity, adoption of non-interference norms in other nations’ domestic affairs, and finally, non-alignment.
ii) PROMOTING INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY
As a newly independent and developing country, India understood the relationship between international peace and development. Her focus on disarmament, as well as her desire to avoid military alliances, are intended to promote global peace.
iii) ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF INDIA
At the time of independence, India’s most pressing need was for the country to develop swiftly. In order to attract financial and technological resources from both blocks and focus efforts on growth, it was also vital to promote the country’s democracy and freedom. During the Cold War, India chose to eschew the power bloc politics that characterised international politics.
India’s foreign policy has been driven by a set of fundamental principles from which it has rarely deviated. In reality, several of his core features, such as non-alignment, remain important and relevant today.
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