Female genital mutilation (FGM) includes, for non-medical reasons, complete or partial segmentation of the female vulva or other damage to the female genitalia. This practice is prevalent in the western, eastern, and northeastern regions of Africa, certain Asian countries and the Middle East, and immigrant groups from these regions. Supporters of this approach cited cultural, religious, and social requirements as reasons to undergo these procedures. It has no justified reason and can be traced to many ages and centuries old. Although there is no religious provision stipulating this kind of behaviour, the implementers usually think that such action is supported by religion.
Most circumcisions are performed before puberty, especially between the ages of four and eight. There is pressure on people to follow these customs and practices and the inability to do so results in the ostracisation of the ones who deviate from this practice. Female genital mutilation is often regarded as a necessary part of healthy parenting and is a way to prepare girls for adulthood and marriage. It is highly unsafe and painful, but culture is cited as reason enough as a reason for females to have to go through with it.
Female genital mutilation is also internationally recognized as a violation of the human rights of girls and women. Almost all cuttings are performed on minors, so they are also violations of children’s rights. This practice also violates the rights of human health, safety and physical integrity, the right to be free from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. Where Female genital mutilation is a social contract, social pressure in order to be consistent with the behaviour of others or with what others do is the strongest motivation for the long-term implementation of such action.
Though these practices are based mainly on Africa and other underdeveloped countries, the World Health Organisation (WHO) stepped up in 1970 to speak against it on the grounds of medical reasons. The movement has since gained momentum, and Human rights activists and groups have pushed to make reformative actions to see that FGM is not carried out. Now, even countries that practice genital cutting have laws that ban the same. It can be said that pressures from other countries where the practice is not so common forced these countries to take reformative action. All of this is only possible due to globalization and its impact on the law. Laws, to a great extent, are affected by globalization, international pressures to correct customary laws that are prevalent in less developed countries. It brings new aspects to the country to reform itself towards development.
As in the case of Egypt, where the majority of the women are circumcised, was extremely reluctant to pass an anti female cutting bill, appropriate laws were only passed after wide worldwide outrage and pressure by the international backlash and tensions mounted by the same. Economic status also plays a massive role in deciding how fast a country acts on international standards, like in Tanzania. Tanzania is an impoverished country, and there is a heavy reliance on foreign funds, and hence they were quick at imposing laws that ban female cutting. A lot of international effort was required to stop the practice. Advocacy tools for international, regional, and local efforts to end female genital mutilation within a generation were established. There is a strong interrelation between making laws on a national level and4 the same being influenced on a global scale by international communities and countries in power. However, global acts prove to be futile if they do not install themselves at the national level.
I have always been against Glorifying Over Work and therefore, in the year 2021, I have decided to launch this campaign “Balancing Life”and talk about this wrong practice, that we have been following since last few years. I will be talking to and interviewing around 1 lakh people in the coming 2021 and publish their interview regarding their opinion on glamourising Over Work.
If you are interested in participating in the same, do let me know.
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