Reason behind the creation of juvenile acts.

People who commit crimes at a very young age are called ‘ Juvenile Delinquents’ particularly under the age of 18 years. The mind of a child is tender and develops with each passing year. There mind does not work like the minds of an average adult. The mistakes often committed by them are not lawful.
Child delinquency is a significant and co-occurring problem. Comorbid mental health disorders and substance abuse are more prevalent among delinquent youth, as well as early sexual activity, truancy, and school failure. Comorbid refers to a mental condition that is caused by the occurrence of another.

There are various factors that effect the mind of the minors. Below are a few enlisted- Various factors affect the mind of the minors. Below are a few enlisted-

1. Individual reasons.

• Low intelligence – Literacy plays a significant part in shaping the minds of a minor. The NCRB data shows that despite a majority of all juveniles arrested between the age of 16 and above, only 45% have completed their primary school, but have not completed their high school. 12.25% are illiterate, while only 9.6% have completed their high school.5

  • Early behavioral issue- It is observed that various juvenile crimes are caused by the first behavioral issues. Criminal behavior itself not regarded as a disorder or a mental illness. Some of the main reasons behind such acts are the anti-social environment or thoughts. Especially those conditions that manifest themselves in symptoms such as lack of impulse control and lack of inhibition, hallucinations and delusions, paranoia, hyperactivity, and inability to concentrate or possession of impaired communication skills.
  • Lack of parental care- It is often observed that children, who find it difficult to confront their parents undergo a lot of pressure and mental trauma. These kids find a resort and escape from society, which often leads them to an undesirable path.
  • 2. School/Community- In schools, it is observed that children form groups and often supports each other. The formation of these groups is based on their interest and mind-sets. The groups formed, support the members of such groups in mischievous acts as well. It is often noticed that such influence causes the children to neglect family learning, ethics and morals.
  • 3. Social factors

Broken Homes- In one of the studies conducted by Uday Shankar in India, 13.3% of the 140 delinquents came from broken homes.6 Families are one of the most important social circle that a child has. Often, children with disturbed backgrounds engage in activities that can affect the mental state of a child. Family background is also an essential factor as it is usually seen that children who are grown up in hostile and aggressive parenting are more likely to exhibit deviant activities which may be harmful to society.7

The list of factors is limitless and varies from person to person. With time several factors cause such acts. These changes reasons also that lead to the amendments in the act. Juvenile Justice act has been amended during different eras. Child Rights Trust director Nagasimha G Rao who deals with cases involving juveniles in conflict once said that “The social environment is constantly changing. The way children spend time in schools is changing, with less friendship and more competition; parents have less time to give their children, and we see many cases where children come from families that have no financial problems, which indicates that the problem is something else.”

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