Logic is a scanning and evaluation of an argument. It also refers to the science of reasoning. The term “logic” comes from the Greek word “logike,” which means “study of reasoning.” It can also be defined as the process by which humans’ reason in order to formulate their ideas and reach a conclusion. The goal of logic is to provide processes, procedures, and devices that aid in distinguishing correct from incorrect reasoning, as well as good from bad reasoning. However, this does not imply that only those who research logic are capable of correct reasoning. Logic is a science that deals with the principles and basis of soundness of inference and demonstrations. The philosophy of logic, as used exclusively in the singular, is concerned with the formal concepts of rationality. It is reasonable to conclude that if a stranger enters the house with damp hair, it is raining outside. It has expanded in many ways, much as any other successful area of research.
MEANING OF TERM LOGIC
Logic is required in any situation where justification is required. Our work in that field would be more successful if we use our logic more specifically. Everything leaving beings use reasoning in most intellectual tasks on a daily and instinctive basis. Even all kinds of plants, fishes, and animals have a rational basis in their behaviors and reactions. We will see how animals think for a moment, reason, and then respond if we pay attention. Logic looks at the general forms that arguments take and decides which forms are true and which are fallacies. It’s a form of critical reasoning. The study of logic comes under the category of epistemology of philosophy, which asks how we believe what we know. It is the analysis of valid inferences within certain formal languages in mathematics. Logic can be traced back to ancient India, China, and Greece, among other ancient cultures.
The classical trivium included the study of logic.
Averroes characterized logic as a toll for determining whether anything is true or false.
Richard White characterized logic as both a science and an art form.
Logic, according to Frege, is the study of the most general laws of reality.
This “logic” enables one to differentiate between right and false reasoning and aids us in reaching a verdict. As a consequence, logic refers to the philosophy of coming at a decision by “valid reasoning.”
Types of logic
There are mainly four types of logics that we learn in day-to-day basis.
- INFORMAL LOGIC:
This type is what we use in our daily reasoning. This is the logic and arguments we use in our daily interaction with other people. It’s a natural language argument that studies fallacies which is an important part of informal logic.
PREMISE: Riti saw a black cat on her way to office. And at work she got fired.
CONCLUSION: Black cats are considered as unlucky.
EXPLANATION: This is a broad statement that cannot be confirmed.
- FORMAL LOGIC:
The study of inference with strictly formal content is known as formal inference. As a result of a thorough investigation, logic is applied. Deductive reasoning is used in formal logic, and the premises must be true. To arrive at a formal conclusion, you must obey the premises.
PREMISE: All spiders have eight legs. Black Widows are a type of spider.
CONCLUSION: Black Widows have eight legs.
EXPLANATION: This argument isn’t controversial.
- SYMBOLIC LOGIC:
This type of logic examines the interrelationships between symbols. It attaches symbols to verbal reasoning in order to use a mathematical procedure to verify the statements’ veracity. It’s an investigation into symbolic abstract concepts that capture the formal characteristics of logical inferences. Propositional logic and predicate logic are two kinds of logic.
PROPOSITIONS: If all mammals feed their babies milk from the mother (A). If all cats feed their babies mother’s milk (B). All cats are mammals(C). The Ʌ means “and,” and the ⇒ symbol means “implies.”
CONCLUSION: A Ʌ B ⇒ C
EXPLANATION: Proposition A and proposition B lead to the conclusion, C. If all mammals feed their babies milk from the mother and all cats feed their babies mother’s milk, it implies all cats are mammals.
- MATHEMATICAL LOGIC:
Mathematical logic is the application of formal logic to mathematics. This kind of logic is part of the foundation for computer science logic. Symbolic logic and mathematical logic are often used interchangeably. It is a branch of symbolic logic that can be applied to a variety of other areas of research in formal sciences, including model theory, proof theory, set theory, and recursion theory.
HISTORY OF LOGIC
Aristotle founded logic as a distinct field of research in the west. As a result, Aristotle is known as the “Father of Western Logic.” However, logic prevailed long before Aristotle’s day, and well before westerners began to think scientifically. In India, the Mahabharata and Koutilya’s Arthashastra contain parallels to the Anviksiki and Tarka schools of logic. The Nyaya School of philosophy represents Indian logic. The Nyaya Sutras of Akshapada Gautama (from the second century) are the Nyaya School’s main texts. Indian logic also encompasses Jaina and Buddhist logic. Nagarjuna, Vasubandhu, Dignana, and Dharmakirti are the thinkers who contributed to the growth of Buddhist logic. In China, the invention of logic was credited to Mozi, “Master Mo,” a contemporary of Confucius who founded the Mohist academy. However, owing to the harsh law of Legalism under the Qin dynasty, logic became extinct in China before the Buddhists developed the philosophy of logic in India.
Finally, Aristotle (384-322 B.C.), considered as the founder of logic, was the first to incorporate modern logic as a formal branch of analysis. The philosophy of Aristotle is also considered as “traditional” logic. This Aristotelian logic idea inspired the growth of logic across the world, except in India and China, where it was discovered independently, in Chanakya’s Mahabharata/ Arthashastra and Mozi’s discovery, respectively. Modern “symbolic” and “mathematical” logic that I already discussed above with examples are also emerged during this time period. Several ancient cultures used intricate methods of reasoning and asked questions about logic or logical paradoxes that were suggested. In India, Rigveda’s Nasadiya Sukta (RV 10.129) includes ontological conjecture in terms of separate conceptual divisions which were later formally revised as the four catuskoti circles: “A”, “not A”, “A and not A” and “not A and not A.”
The famous “wheel of reason” (Hetucakra) of Dignga is a method of indicating when one thing (like smoke) can be taken as an invariable sign of another thing (like fire), but the inference is frequently inductive and based on previous observation. Dignga’s analysis, according to Matilal, is similar to John Stuart Mill’s inductive Joint Method of Agreement and Difference. Furthermore, while the traditional five-member Indian syllogism is deductively valid, it contains repetitions that are superfluous to its logical validity. As a result, some commentators regard the traditional Indian syllogism as a rhetorical form that is entirely natural in many cultures around the world, but not as a logical form—at least not in the sense that all logically unnecessary elements have been omitted for the sake of simplicity.
Utility of logic
- Logic aids in the development of mental abilities.
- We have the ability to correct our claims’ flaws.
- The Science of Physics is Logic.
- Reasoning is an important aspect of real education.
- In real life, logic is useful.
- We should use logic to justify and demonstrate facts.
The evolution of logic since Frege, Russell, and Wittgenstein has had a major impact on philosophical practice and the origin of philosophical questions, as well as Philosophy of Mathematics. Computer logic circuits use logic, especially sentential logic, which is fundamental to computer science. University philosophy departments also teach logic as a required course.
DEFINITION OF LOGIC
Since ancient time logic has been studied. Logic can be divided into two categories:
- The traditional meaning of reasoning
- A modern description of logic
TRADITIONAL DEFINATION OF LAW:
Aristotle’s simple concept of logic is as follows. It gets its name from the fact that Aristotle’s logic was known as traditional logic at the time. The type of statements used in arguments is given top priority in this situation. In the case of mathematical logic, they do not require the use of formal languages or symbols. “Syllogistic reasoning” is the foundation of conventional philosophy. As a result, it can be described as “a method of formal logic primarily concerned with syllogistic modes of deduction based on Aristotle and including some improvements made by contemporary logicians” such as Augustus de Morgan, George Boole, Wittgenstein, Francis Bacon, Leibniz, and Godel, who have all affected the development of source.
MODERN DEFINATION OF LOGIC:
The evolution of logic with the passage of time gave rise to the modern concept of logic. These are considered as new concepts of logic because they are dealing with modern sources of logic. Modern logic, like abstract logic, has more element relationships and uses symbols. It goes beyond logical reasoning. As a result, it is used in any science where proper thought is needed. To put it another way, it can be characterized as “logic as a thorough and formulaic discipline whose exemplification was the exact method of evidence used in mathematics.”
TYPES OF REASONING
The term “deductive reasoning” refers to reasoning in which the conclusion is limited to the reach of the supporting statements. Deductive reasoning provides full evidence of the inference’s validity. It draws conclusions based on evidence and concepts that have already been stated. As a result, the conclusions reached by deductive reasoning are assured.
- Bachelors are unmarried men. Bill is unmarried. Therefore, Bill is a bachelor.
- All men are mortal. Joe is a man. Therefore, Joe is mortal. If the first two statements are true, then the conclusion must be true.
Deductive reasoning is further classified into:
- Mediate inferences
- Immediate inferences
Inductive reasoning is where a conclusion is reached that is outside the limits of the supporting claims. It comes to its conclusion based on the information given. As a result, inductive reasoning’s conclusion is both likely and uncertain. Typically, this method of logic requires creating a law based on a sequence of recurring encounters.
- This cat is black. That cat is black. A third cat is black. Therefore, all cats are black.
- This marble from the bag is black. That marble from the bag is black. A third marble from the bag is black. Therefore, all the marbles in the bag black.
|BASIS||DEDUCTIVE REASONING||INDUCTIVE REASONING|
|INTRODUCTION||Deductive reasoning, also known as deductive inference, is the method of arriving at a logically definite conclusion through reasoning from one or more broad statements about what is known.||Inductive reasoning, also known as inference or bottom-up logic, is the process of constructing or evaluating general hypotheses based on concrete examples.|
|ARGUMENTS||In deductive reasoning, arguments are either true or false. Arguments that are invalid are still unsound. Valid claims are only sound if the premises on which they are founded are correct.||Inductive reasoning arguments are either strong or weak. Weak claims are never convincing. Strong claims are only valid if the principles on which they are based are correct.|
|CONCLUSION VALIDITY||If the premises are believed to be real, the conclusions may be proved to be correct.||Even if the reasoning is sound and the conclusions are true, the inference can be wrong.|
|CASE OF VALADITY||Case of material validity is seen here.||Case of formal validity is seen here.|
|CONCLUSION TYPE||Conclusion is probable.||Conclusion is certain.|
USE OF LOGICAL RESONING IN COURT
In law courts, logic information is used in a variety of ways. Reasoning is required for both contesting legal matters and creating or amending rules.
- CONTESTING THE LEGAL DISPUTE
In a court of law, contesting consists of three steps: drafting, selecting and gathering facts, and appealing. These features are available to both the plaintiff and defendant in a civil case.
- CHOOSING AND COLLECTING OF EVIDENCE:
We must pick the appropriate forms of facts to present them in the best possible way when writing a motion so that the judge can rule in our favor. When it comes to planning a dispute case, this analytical mind is particularly important.
A lawyer draughts a motion to efficiently present a litigant’s case so that we can help him get justice in the existence frame of law.
Effective speech and logical presentation of facts are needed when arguing their case. Even, by reviewing the testimony of witnesses offered by all parties to the lawsuit in order to uncover details that follow logically from the observation of facts or words used in court.
- MAKING OR AMENDING LAW:
The importance of logic can also be seen in the field of law. When creating new legislation, legislators consider both the socio-cultural and socio-economic dynamics of the society in question. When watching, they become aware of the challenges that people face and the laws that are needed to address them. The laws are then rendered or revised in view of all of this logical reasoning. As a result, we can’t figure out the facts behind the lies told by litigants without using logic. As a result, the fundamental concepts of logic used in legal reasoning and court ruling are as follows:
- Skill in applying inductive reasoning based on prior experience.
- Attorneys, judges, and law students may use deductive inference to help them decide a case.
- ASPECTS OF LOGIC USEFUL IN LAW:
All three facets of the legal system make use of logic:
• Making laws
• Putting laws into effect
• Interpreting laws
Thus, logic is useful in the correct understanding of the law, the formation of a language when creating legal rules, and the recognition of various forms of fallacies, among other things.
IMPORTANCE OF LOGIC IN HUMAN AFFAIRS
The study of reasoning concepts and mechanisms is known as logic. Deduction, a form of precise inference, is the foundation of most reasoning. It is a study in correct thinking that includes language and reasoning. It investigates how we distinguish between good (or sound) reasoning and bad reasoning (or unsound). Reasoning may take the form of an argument or an inference.
An assertion consists of a set of statements known as premises, as well as a statement known as the inference, which should be supported by or inferred from the premises. A strong argument supports the inference, while a weak argument does not. The two basic types of reasoning are deductive and inductive reasoning.
An effective deductive argument is one in which the conclusion proceeds directly from the premises. A deductive argument is said to be false if the conclusion does not necessarily emerge from the premises.” The claim is a valid deductive argument “All humans are mortal, and since all Greeks are mortal, all Greeks are mortal. Even if the inference is right, the assertion “All human beings are mortal, and all Greeks are mortal, so all Greeks are human beings” is false. In that line of thinking, one might argue that all dogs, which are indeed mortal, are human beings.
Misunderstandings begin with people who are unable to express their needs and desires in a discrete and specific manner, eventually leading to more damaging damage, such as misunderstanding and confederation disputes. Because of the endless sufferings of a person whose wishes are not adequately understood due to a lack of capacity to express himself, offences such as illegal and criminal acts are committed. The effects of ignorance in the correct and proper use of words are major and minor dilemmas between friends, family members, and other relationships. These and many other problems we face today are traditionally rooted in a different source, which is a lack of comprehension that could have been avoided if mankind only knew how to study and determine the argument system before it began.
Logic is important because it influences every decision we make in our lives. Logical reasoning aids us in considering and making lifestyle decisions. If no one thought objectively, we’d all be running around like chickens with our heads cut off, and nothing would make sense.
The ability to think objectively is extremely useful in our daily lives. Day after day, moment by moment, we are busy reviewing the available evidence and making predictions about what will happen next. As I walk down the sidewalk, my interpretation of the available facts leads me to the conclusion that moving a foot forward for the next move is healthy.
When conditions change, I’ll have to reimagine and determine that it’s no longer safe to put a foot forward for the next step. Reasoning is typically important in human relationships since this helps us to distinguish between good and poor arguments. It clarifies and clarifies our thought. This demonstrates our ability to think critically. It inspires us to seek knowledge and awareness of whatever field we are interested in. It improves our ability to formulate and test arguments objectively. Thus, understanding logic aids us in coping with legal issues while also improving our level of comprehension. It enables one to challenge various aspects of life and use logic to arrive at a conclusion. As law students, reasoning is extremely useful in both drafting the petition and pleading our cases. As a result, this science of valid reasoning is highly useful in our daily lives.
- Logics by Dr. Rekha Kale
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