A massive empire, is the first of its kind in the ancient South Asian
subcontinent, was founded by the Maurya Dynasty (c.324-185 BCE), with no
established imperial background. Clearly, under the reigns of its first three
kings, Chandragupta Maurya, Bindusara, and Asoka, the kingdom was built
out by a sustained strategy of accelerated growth. The kingdom was
controlled by a vast number of functionaries, largely known from the Greek
records, the Arthashastra and Asoka inscriptions, almost pan-Indian in
extent. The conventional understanding of the Mauryan Empire as a federal
union is disputed by recent historiography, but offers a much more detailed
view of the dynamics of state and colonial formations wherein the philosophy
of Dhamma played a crucial role. In Ancient India, the kingdom saw the first
appearance of written documents and stone sculpting. In c.185 BCE, the
Kingdom fell. The Maurya Dynasty has an immediate post role in the political
focus on early India, as it formed the eldest and largest empire, which lasted
for a comparatively short period of around 140 years. During the rulership of
the first three kings, Chandragupta Maurya (c. 324-300 BCE), Bindusara (c.
300-272 BCE) and Asoka (c. 272-233 BCE), the enormous authority of the
dynasty is better seen. The continued involvement in the analysis of the
Maurya Empire is assured by the existence of numerous, mainly current,

In ancient India, dominated by the Maurya dynasty from 322-185 BCE, the
Maurya Empire was a historically detailed Iron Age historical entity. Actually,
originated from the kingdom of Magadha on the east coast of the Indian
subcontinent in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (modern Bihar, eastern Uttar
Pradesh), the empire had its capital city at Pataliputra (modern Patna).
The Empire was established in 322 BCE by Chandragupta Maurya, who
overthrew the Nanda Dynasty and soon spread his influence westward
through central and western India with the aid of Chanakya. His extension
gained advantage of the local control disturbances created by Alexander the
Great’s forces withdrawing west. By 316 BCE, the kingdom had completely
invaded North-western India, crushing and destroying Alexander’s satraps.
The invasion led by Seleucus I, a Macedonian general in Alexander’s army,
was then defeated, and Chandragupta acquired additional territories west of
the Indus River. The Maurya Kingdom was one of the world’s greatest
colonies at the time. The kingdom spread to the north all along Himalayan
natural borders, to the east into Assam, to the west into Baluchistan
(southwest Pakistan and southeast Iran), and into in what’s now
Afghanistan’s Hindu Kush mountains. Emperors Chandragupta and
Bindusara spread the Kingdom into India’s central and southern areas, but it
left a small portion of undiscovered tribal and open forest regions around
Kalinga (modern Odisha) before it was invaded by Ashoka. After Ashoka’s
reign concluded, it collapsed for about 50 years before dissolving in 185 BCE
with the establishment of the Shunga Dynasty in Magadha.

According to legend, Chanakya travelled to Magadha, a vast and militarily
and economically powerful kingdom that was feared by its neighbours, but
was humiliated by the Nanda Dynasty’s king Dhana Nanda. Chanakya swore
vengeance and announced that the Nanda Dynasty would be defeated. The
Nanda Empire flourished in ancient India’s Magadha area during the fourth
century BCE and survived until 345-321 BCE. The Nanda Dynasty’s empire
ranged from Bengal in the east to the Punjab province in the west, and as
far south as the Vindhya Range in the south. The leaders of this empire were
notorious for amassing large amounts of capital.
Chanakya helped Chandragupta Maurya and his armies in their effort to
supplant the throne of Magadha. Chandragupta gathered many young men
from around Magadha and other regions, who were outraged by King
Dhana’s corrupt and authoritarian rule, as well as the money required for his
army to fight a series of battles, using his intelligence network. Former Taxila
generals, experienced Chanakya students, King Porus of Kakayee’s
representative and his son Malayketu, and rulers of small states were among
these citizens.
Maurya formulated a plot to conquer Pataliputra, the Nanda Empire’s capital.
A war was proclaimed, and the Magadha army was dispatched from the city
to face Maurya’s armies on a distant battleground. Meanwhile, Maurya’s
generals and agents bribed Nanda’s crooked general, forcing the empire to
plunge into civil war, resulting in the death of the future king. Nanda retired
and went into exile as a result of the civil strife in the empire. Chanakya
approached the prime minister, Rakshasa, and asked him to stay in office
because his allegiance was to Magadha, not the Nanda Dynasty. Chanakya
claimed again that deciding to resist would result in a war that would
seriously affect Magadha and eventually ruin the region. Chandragupta
Maurya was legally appointed as the new King of Magadha in 321 BCE, at
the age of 21. Rakshasa acknowledged Chanakya’s argument, and
Chandragupta Maurya was officially elected as the new King of Magadha in
321 BCE. Chanakya assumed the position of an establishment figure, and
Rakshasa became Chandragupta’s chief advisor.
Chandragupta led a series of campaigns in 305 BCE to take satrapies in the
Indus Valley and northwest India following Alexander the Great’s death in
323 BCE. Seleucus I Nicator struggled to protect these lands after
Alexander’s remaining armies were defeated and returned westward. From
ancient sources, little information about the campaigns is available. Seleucus
was vanquished and fled to Afghanistan’s mountainous area.
In 303 BCE, the two kings signed a peace treaty that contained a marital
partnership. Chandragupta was granted the satrapies of Paropamisadae
(Kamboja and Gandhara) and Arachosia (Kandhahar) and Gedrosia as part
of the arrangement (Baluchistan). Seleucus I was given 500 war elephants,
which he would use to help him defeat western Hellenistic kings at the Battle
of Ipsus in 301 BCE. Diplomatic relations were established and several
Greeks, such as the historian Megasthenes, Deimakos and Dionysius
resided at the Mauryan court.
According to Megasthenes, Chandragupta built a strong centrally controlled
state with a government at Pataliputra, which was “covered by a wooden wall
pierced by 64 gates and 570 towers.” Aelian identified Indian palaces as
superior in splendour to Persia’s Susa or Ectabana, despite not specifically
citing Megasthenes or referencing Pataliputra. The city’s structure seems to
have shared certain parallels with Persian cities of the time.
Bindusara, Chandragupta’s son, spread the Mauryan dynasty into southern
India. The famous Tamil poet Mamulanar of the Sangam literature
represented how the Maurya army conquered Tamil country south of the
Deccan Plateau using troop from Karnataka. According to Mamulanar, the
Mauryan army’s vanguard was made up of Vadugar (people from the
Andhra-Karnataka regions directly north of Tamil Nadu). Deimachus, a
Greek diplomat, was also present at his court.
Chandragupta abdicated his throne in favour of Bhadrabahu, a Jain teacher.
He is also said to have spent several years as an ascetic in
Shravanabelagola before fasting to demise in the Jain tradition of
Chandragupta Maurya consolidated his rule over the modern Maurya
Kingdom by crushing the remaining Macedonian satraps from his new seat
of power in Magadha. He soon spread his influence westward through
central and western India, taking advantage of local power disturbances
triggered by Alexander the Great’s Greek armies’ retreat westward. The
kingdom had finally annexed North-western India by 320 BCE.
Chandragupta Maurya will be the first ruler to unite India into a single state,
forming one of the world’s largest states at the time, and the largest in the
Indian subcontinent’s history. Underneath the reign of Ashoka, the Great, the
Maurya Kingdom spread into the southern Indian sub – continent after
winning the Seleucid-Mauryan war.
From 322 BCE until his retrenchment and relinquishment in favour of his son,
Bindusara, in 298 BCE, Chandragupta Maurya ruled. Bindusara (320-272
BCE) was son of Maurya and queen Durdhara. Bindusara extended the
Maurya Kingdom southward during his rule, with Chanakya as his adviser.
He unified 16 states under the Maurya Dynasty, conquering almost the entire
Indian peninsula. The peaceful Dravidian kingdoms of the Cholas, ruled by
King Ilamcetcenni, the Pandyas, and the Cheras, were neglected by
Bindusara. Apart from these southern states, Kalinga (modern-day Odisha)
was India’s only kingdom that was not controlled by Bindusara.
The Seleucid-Mauryan War
(comparative analysis)

Emperor Chandragupta Maurya started a series of campaigns in 305 BCE
to reclaim the satrapies that Alexander the Great had left behind when he
moved westward. Seleucus I struggled to protect these lands, but in 303
BCE, both sides agreed to a truce.
One of Alexander’s generals, Seleucus, obtained Babylonia and extended
his kingdoms from there to cover most of Alexander’s near-eastern territory.
Seleucus installed himself in Babylon in 312 BC, which is the year the
Seleucid Empire was founded. Not only did he administer Babylonia, but he
also controlled the whole eastern portion of Alexander’s kingdom. The
Seleucid Empire was a major cultural centre during the Hellenistic period.
The primacy of Greek customs was retained in places where a GreekMacedonian political elite ruled (mostly urban). In 305 BCE, Seleucus I
attempted to recover the north western parts of India for the expanding
Seleucid Kingdom.
The Seleucid-Mauryan War was defeated by Seleucus, and the two kings
reunited with a peace treaty. The Greeks gave Chandragupta a Macedonian
princess as well as other satrapies, namely Paropamisade (modern-day
Kamboja and Gandhara), Arachosia (modern-day Kandhahar), and
Gedrosia (modern-day Kandhahar) (modern-day Baluchistan). In exchange,
Chandragupta sent 500 war elephants, a military asset that Seleucus would
use to beat western Hellenistic kings at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BCE.
Chandragupta, the Mauryan Empire’s father, had a son named Bindusara.
Several texts, including the Puranas and the Mahavamsa, testify to this.
Buddhist texts such as the Dipavamsa and Mahavamsa (“Bindusaro”), Jain
texts such as Parishishta-Parvan, and Hindu texts such as the Vishnu
Purana attest to his life (“Vindusara”). Some Greek sources refer to him as
“Amitrochates” or variants on that name.
Bindusara took the throne in the year 297 BCE. [65] At the age of 22,
Bindusara inherited a huge empire that comprised what is now Northern,
Southern, and Eastern India, as well as portions of Afghanistan and
Baluchistan. Bindusara grew his kingdom to cover all of southern India,
including what is now known as Karnataka. He unified sixteen states into the
Mauryan Empire, occupying virtually the entire Indian peninsula (he is said
to have invaded the ‘land between the two oceans,’ referring to the
peninsular area between the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea). The
peaceful Tamil kingdoms of the Cholas, ruled by King Ilamcetcenni, the
Pandyas, and the Cheras, were not invaded by Bindusara. Aside from these
southern states, Kalinga (modern-day Odisha) was India’s sole kingdom
which was not part of Bindusara’s empire. It was later captured by his son
Ashoka, who acted as governor of Ujjaini during his father’s rule,
underscoring the town’s significance.
Bindusara’s life was not well known as his father Chandragupta’s or his son
Ashoka’s. During Chanakya’s rule, he continued to serve as Prime Minister.
According to Taranatha, a mediaeval Tibetan scholar who travelled to India,
Chanakya aided Bindusara in “destroying the lords and kings of the sixteen
kingdoms and thereby becoming undisputed genius of the region between
the eastern and western coasts.”
The people of Taxila revolted twice during his reign. The first rebellion was
caused by Susima, his eldest son’s mismanagement. The cause of the
second rebellion is uncertain, but Bindusara was unable to put it down during
his lifetime. After Bindusara’s death, Ashoka smashed it.
Bindusara died in 272 BCE, and his son, Ashoka the Great, succeeded him
(304-232 BCE). Ashoka (r. 272-232 BCE) was a great commander as a
young prince, suppressing revolts in Ujjain and Taxila. He was charismatic
and militant as ruler, reasserting the Empire’s supremacy in southern and
western India. But it was his conquest of Kalinga (262-261 BCE) that proved
to be his decisive moment. While Ashoka’s army defeated the Kalinga army
of royal troops and military forces, the fierce fighting killed an estimated
100,000 soldiers and civilians, including over 10,000 of Ashoka’s own men.
Hundreds of thousands of civilians were injured as a result of war’s
devastation and aftermath. Ashoka started to feel remorse after seeing the
destruction first-hand. About the fact that the annexation of Kalinga was
complete, Ashoka followed Buddhist teachings and renounced war and
aggression. He sent missionaries to travel across Asia, spreading Buddhism
to new lands.
As emperor, Ashoka enforced ahimsa (the philosophy of “doing no harm”)
by restricting hunting and violent sports, as well as abolishing indebted and
forced labour (many thousands of people in war-ravaged Kalinga had been
forced into hard labour and servitude). Though holding the peace with a vast
and strong army, Ashoka extended good relations with states across Asia
and Europe and supported Buddhist missions. He embarked on a national
public works development programme. The building of stupas, or Buddhist
worship buildings containing relics, was one of these projects. The Great
Stupa in Sanchi, India, was one of the most prominent stupas constructed
during Ashoka’s reign. Ashoka became one of India’s most influential and
well-known monarchs after 40 years of stability, unity, and growth. In modern
India, he retains an idealised figure of inspiration.
For the next 50 years, Ashoka was preceded by a succession of lesser
rulers. Dasharatha Maurya, Ashoka’s grandson, took over as his successor.
None of Ashoka’s sons is able to replace him on the throne. His firstborn,
Mahendra, was on a quest to spread Buddhism around the world.
Due to his blindness, Kunala Maurya was unable to attain the throne, and
Tivala, the son of Kaurwaki, died even before Ashoka. Jalauka, the other
sibling, has a relatively brief backstory. Dasharatha’s rule culminated in the
loss of several territories, which were later regained by Kunala’s son,
Samprati. The Mauryas eventually lost several territories after Samprati.
Brihadratha Maurya was assassinated in a military parade by his president
Pushyamitra Shunga in 180 BCE, leaving no successor. As a result, the
Maurya Dynasty came to an end, giving way to the Shunga Empire.
One of Ashoka’s most well-known contributions was the construction of his
edicts, which were installed between 269 and 232 BCE. The Edicts of
Ashoka are inscribed in stone and can be found all over the Indian
subcontinent. Ashoka’s edicts can be found all over the world, from
Afghanistan to Andhra Pradesh (Nellore District). They detail his policies and
achievements. Two of them have been written in Greek, and the other in both
Greek and Aramaic, despite the fact that they were mainly written in Prakrit.
The Greeks, Kambojas, and Gandharas are listed in Ashoka’s edicts as
peoples who form a border area of his empire. They also validate Ashoka’s
envoys’ journeys to the Greek rulers in the west, all the way to the
Mediterranean. In addition to social and cultural facets of his rule, Ashoka’s
edicts stressed Buddhism while not condemning all faiths. The Edicts of
Ashoka are considered as an early text that encouraged religious freedom
because of this.
The dynasty’s founder, Chandragupta Maurya, created a single currency, a
network of state leaders and administrators, and a legal profession to provide
justice and protection to merchants, farmers, and traders across
India. Farmers were released from provincial kings’ tax and crop collection
responsibilities due to the Mauryan Empire’s disciplined central authority.
Instead, they were exposed to a stringent yet egalitarian national taxation
scheme. The Arthashastra, an ancient Indian essay on economic
governance, statecraft, and military planning, guided the system’s
operations. The Arthashastra comprises books on the essence of
government, law, criminal and civil courts, ethics, and economic issues such
as markets and commerce, agriculture, geochemistry, mining and metals,
fisheries, and others, all written in Sanskrit and adhering to Hindu
While tax collection was regimental, the Mauryan Empire sponsored various
public works programmes to improve productivity. Ashoka, like his father and
grandparents, financed the building of tens of thousands of bridges, dams,
canals, rest rooms, hospitals, and other kinds of construction. For the first
time in West and South Asia, political stability and military security promoted
a shared economic structure, improved agricultural production, and
strengthened widespread trade and investment under Mauryan rule.
The expansion of trade in India was helped by the Maurya Empire’s national
stability and internal harmony. During Ashoka’s reign, the Mauryan global
trade network expanded dramatically thanks to the Indo-Greek friendship
treaty. On the new Pakistan-Afghanistan frontier, the Khyber Pass became
a geographically significant point of trade and contact with the outside world.
In West Asia, Greek states and Hellenic kingdoms became trade allies. Via
the Malay Peninsula, trade entered Southeast Asia. Silk, textiles, spices, and
exotic foods were among India’s exports. Addition to outlining with the
Mauryan Empire supplied the outside world with modern scientific
knowledge and technology.
The Arthashastra and Megasthenes narratives of Pataliputra describe the
Maurya empire’s complex municipal structure for regulating its towns. The
city was governed by a council of thirty commissioners split into six
commissions or boards. The first board set salaries and supervised provided
commodities; the second board coordinated foreign dignitaries, visitors, and
businessmen; the third board-maintained documents and registrations; the
fourth board oversaw imported goods and product transactions; the fifth
board-controlled commerce, granted licences, and reviewed weights and
measurements; and the sixth board collected sales taxes. Some cities, such
as Taxila, were granted the authority to mint their own coins. The city
attorney has officers in charge of public health issues such as road repairs,
public housing, markets, hospitals, and educational facilities, among other
items. Gramika was the village’s official representative (in towns Nagarika).
The city attorney had some magisterial jurisdiction as well.
The ruler of the Maurya Empire, Chandragupta Maurya, ruled from 324 to
297 BCE before willingly relinquishing in favour of his uncle, Bindusara, who
ruled from 297 to 272 BCE. This sparked a succession war, wherein
Bindusara’s son, Ashoka, conquered his rival, Susima, and ascended to the
throne in 268 BCE, becoming the Maurya Dynasty’s greatest emperor.
The Sector in India was divided into dozens of kingdoms until the Mauryan
Empire. These were dominated by influential provincial chieftains who fought
between themselves with small armies. Regional chieftains, private forces,
and even bands of bandits who tried to assert their own dominance in small
areas were all defeated by the Mauryan Army.
The Mauryan Army, the world’s greatest standing military force at the time,
aided the empire’s growth and preservation. Scholars estimate that the
empire had 600,000 infantry, 30,000 cavalry, and 9,000 war elephants, with
a large spy network gathering information for both internal and external
defence. Despite his rejection of aggressive war and territorial expansion,
Emperor Ashoka kept a standing army to defend the empire from foreign
threats and to preserve unity and peace in Western and Southern Asia.
In his version, Megasthenes claims that there were no slaves in India. Since
the presence of slavery is stated in Indian texts, and in reality, slaves and
hired labourers supplied the majority of the labour force, this remark has
sparked much discussion. It’s likely that Megasthenes didn’t understand the
Indian scheme because he was thinking about the Greek idea of slavery.
Megasthenes was correct if, for example, Mauryan slavery was arranged
according to the structure mentioned in the Arthashastra. According to
Arrian, “all Indians are free, and none of them is a slave.” The
Lacedaemonians, on the other hand, treat the helots as slaves who do
servile labour. The Indians, on the other hand, do not even use foreigners as
slaves, much less a fellow countryman of their very own.’ According to Arrian,
“all Indians are free, and none of them is a slave.” The Lacedaemonians, on
the other hand, keep the helots as slaves, and these helots do servile
labours; but the Indians do not even use aliens as slaves, much less a fellow
countryman ‘. Strabo claims that no one in India is a slave. The thirteenth
chapter of Kautilya’s Arthashastra, his third book on justice, is devoted to
dasas. Several scholars have translated this Sanskrit text from the Maurya
Empire period (4th century BCE), each in their own way. Dasa is mapped as
slave in Shamasastry’s 1915 version, while Kangle leaves the terms as dasa
and karmakara. The background and privileges bestowed on dasa by
Kautilya show that the term had a different meaning than the modern word
slave, as well as the meaning of the word slave in Greek or other ancient
and mediaeval cultures, according to Kangle.
Women were equated with land in the epics and Puranas. And Buddhism
didn’t help women much. Despite the fact that the Maurya kings often hired
female bodyguards, spies, and Stri-adhyaksha mahamatras, they had a poor
reputation. upper class Purdah had to be accepted by caste ladies. During
this time, men were polygamous and widows were common. Women were
further stigmatised by Arthashastra, as Kautilya rejected women’s
emancipation, and they were not allowed to leave the house without their
husband’s permission. Women play a significant part in ancient Indian
literature. There were many educated ladies in ancient India. There were two
groups of scholarly women: the Brahmavadinis, or women who never
married and lived their lives devoted to the Vedas; and the Brahmavadinis,
or women who married and lived their lives devoted to the Vedas. Female
teachers were referred to as Upadhyaya or Upadhyayi by Katyana.
Sanghamitra, Asoka’s daughter, was initiated into Buddhism preaching. We
read about the Kousambi princess, Jayanti, from Jain texts, who stayed a
crone to study theology and philosophy. Buddhist nuns also wrote hymns.
Sanskrit plays and verses were written by women, and they excelled in
poetry, painting, and other fine arts. The importance of women in Mauryan
society cannot be overstated. It was assumed that they would be subordinate
to the men. This is particularly true in the kind of culture that the Arthashastra
envisions. The women who served in the royal palace were either in charge
of the harem or of looking after the king. Those in the latter group were
transported from their homes. Women of all ages may be hired by the
superintendent of weaving, according to the Arthashastra. However, this
trade is recommended mostly for disfigured women, widows, elderly slaves,
or women forced to serve in order to pay fines. In the chapters on marriage
and the relation between husband and wife, the Arthashastra goes into more
detail about women’s roles. In such conditions, divorce was allowed if both
the husband and wife desired it, but this only extended to marriages that
were either mutual partnerships or abductions, or contracts with a high brideprice.

The edict goes on to express Ashoka’s much greater sorrow and remorse as
a result of his realisation that the victim’s friends and families will still suffer
greatly. According to legend, when Ashoka went out to roam the city after
the war ended, all he saw were burned buildings and dead corpses. The
vengeful Emperor Ashoka was turned into a prosperous and benevolent
emperor after the bloody war with Kalinga, and he became a Buddhist
patron. According to A. L. Basham, a renowned Indologist, Ashoka’s private
religion became Buddhism during the Kalinga War, if not before. As per
Basham, however, Ashoka’s publicly propagated Dharma was not Buddhism
at all. Nonetheless, his patronage resulted in the spread of Buddhism in the
Mauryan empire and other kingdoms during his reign, as well as worldwide
beginning around 250 BCE. The Empire enjoyed nearly half a century of
stability and security after the Kalinga War and Ashoka’s conversion.
Mauryan India has experienced a period of social unity, religious reform, and
scientific and intellectual advancement. Chandragupta Maurya’s adoption of
Jainism aided social and religious renewal and change in his country, while
Ashoka’s adoption of Buddhism is credited with laying the groundwork for
India’s reign of social and political harmony and nonviolence.
The Sunga Dynasty usurped the Maurya Dynasty, and the Indo-Greek
Kingdom absorbed portions of the state. The reign of Ashoka the Great, the
Maurya Dynasty’s Indian emperor who died in 232 BCE, was succeeded by
a 50-year succession of weak rulers. The Maurya Empire lost control of its
domains when Ashoka’s increasingly authoritarian government lost

Comparative analysis
Mauryan and Greeks

Emperor Chandragupta Maurya started a series of campaigns in 305 BCE
to reclaim the satrapies that Alexander the Great had left behind when he
moved westward. Seleucus I struggled to protect these lands, but in 303
BCE, both sides agreed to a truce.
One of Alexander’s generals, Seleucus, obtained Babylonia and extended
his kingdoms from there to cover most of Alexander’s near-eastern territory.
Seleucus installed himself in Babylon in 312 BC, which is the year the
Seleucid Empire was founded. Not only did he administer Babylonia, but he
also controlled the whole eastern portion of Alexander’s kingdom. The
primacy of Greek customs was retained in places where a GreekMacedonian political elite ruled (mostly urban). In 305 BCE, Seleucus I
attempted to recover the north western Indian parts for the expanding
Seleucid Kingdom.
The Seleucid-Mauryan War was defeated by Seleucus, and the two kings
reunited with a treaty of peace. The Greeks gave Chandragupta a
Macedonian princess as well as other satrapies, namely Paropamisade,
Arachosia, and Gedrosia. In exchange, Chandragupta has sent 500 war
elephants, a military asset that Seleucus would use to beat western
Hellenistic kings at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BCE.

The Maurya Empire is a watershed moment in Indian history because it was
the first to create a virtually pan-Indian paramountcy and a centripetal
administrative structure. During this period, the ideal of chakravarti
(universal) rulership was realised. It will be recalled for the development of
Dhamma strategy to emphasise and satisfy diversity in the subcontinent’s
socio-economic and cultural condition. The practise of inscribing royal orders
and records, as well as the use of stone as an involving a large number of
sculptural arts in India, were two other legacies of the Maurya period.
• Burton Stein (1998). A History of India (1st ed.), Oxford: WileyBlackwell.
• Geoffrey Samuel (2010). The Origins of Yoga and Tantra. Indic
Religions to the Thirteenth Century. Cambridge University Press.
• Political History of Ancient India: From the Accession of Parikshit to the
Extinction of the Gupta Dynasty.
• Romila Thapar. Readings in Early Indian History. p.228
• Ramesh Chandra Majumdar. Ancient India.

Aishwarya Says:

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