SCHOOLS OF MUSLIM LAW


INTRODUCTION: The Muslim Law is founded on the Quran’s and Prophet Mohammad’s teachings. In all cases where an express command is given, it is carried out faithfully, but there are many areas that these sources do not cover, and as a result, the great academics devised their own interpretation of what should be done in such a situation.

As these scholars presented their interpretations (Qiyas) of Muslim Law, it resulted in a variety of opinions among them, and as a result of these differences, several schools of Muslim Law arose. Each school’s interpretation is based on its own explanations and reasoning, which frequently leads to disagreements in judgments.

In the absence of explicit criteria, it is impossible to say that one school is better or higher positioned than another, thus all of the schools have been regarded as valid, and anyone who follows any of them is deemed to be on the correct track.

SCHOOLS UNDER MUSLIM LAW: People in Islam have been separated into two sects, each with opposing viewpoints on many aspects of Islam. As a result, Muslim law schools can be divided into two categories:
Sunni schools

Shia schools

1.) Sunni Schools:- There are four major schools of Muslim law in the Sunni sect, which are as follows:

A.) Hanafi School– The most popular school among Muslims is the Hanafi school, which takes its name from its founder, Abu Hanafi. This school is based on Muslim community customs and precedents as well as Prophet Mohammed’s traditions.

This is due to the Prophet’s prohibition against the codification of his words and deeds. As a result, this school depended on the Prophet’s traditions whenever the Quran failed to clarify something.

This school’s most authoritative literature is the Hedaya. It discusses subjects such as inheritance and succession among this school’s followers. In this way, Sirajiyya is likewise a significant work.

Among all schools of Muslim law and Muslims in India, the Hanafi school is the most popular. As a result, if judges need to interpret Islamic law principles, they usually turn to this school first.

B.) Maliki School– Imam Malik-bin-Anas, the school’s founder, is named after him. It dates back to approximately the same time as the Hanafi school, but it blossomed earlier in Madina.

The Hanafi school is based on Ijma (jurists’ interpretations), whereas the Maliki school is based on Sunna and Hadis. These two significant sources emphasize Prophet Mohammed’s sayings, teachings, customs, and traditions.

Imam Malik had personally gathered information on the Prophet’s thousands of recorded traditions. Then he compiled the majority of them into a book, which is still considered the most important Hadis today. Despite the fact that this school has a small number of adherents, Indian laws have derived and codified several of its provisions.

C.) Shafi School– Muhammed bin Irdis Shafi, a pupil of both Imam Malik and Imam Hanafi, founded this school. He is regarded as one of the most influential jurists in the Muslim world.

The Shafi school is essentially a hybrid of the Maliki and Hanafi schools. In the Shafi school, the most important source of law is Ijma, or jurists’ interpretations. It is also based on the Muslim people’s customs. This school is the source of the Qiya source of law, which is based on people’s analogical interpretations.

Egypt and a few Southeast Asian countries are strongholds of the Shafi school. This school is mostly followed by Muslims from Kerala’s Malabar region.

D.) Hanbali School– This school was founded by Ahmed bin Hanbal, a disciple of Imam Shafi. His theory was critical of the Shafi school since it relied on Qiya, or people’s particular analogical reasoning and interpretations.

Instead, he demanded that the Quran and other laws be interpreted by Sunna and Hadis. This was because, in his perspective, the Prophet Mohammed’s teachings and traditions are more important than people’s interpretations.

Imam Hanbal gathered thousands of Hadis and compiled them in his book Musnath as a consequence. The Hanbali school is widely followed in Saudi Arabia, Syria, and the neighboring regions.

2.) Shia Schools:- There are three schools of law according to the Shia sect. In the Muslim world, the Shia sect is considered a minority. They only have political power in Iran, despite the fact that they do not have a majority in that country.

A.) Ithna-Asharis– These schools are founded on the Ithna-Ashari code of conduct. These schools’ adherents are largely found in Iraq and Iran. In India, the Ithna-Asharis School is followed by the majority of Shia Muslims. They are known as political pacifists. This school is regarded as the most influential among Shia Muslims. Except for mutah, which is regarded as a legal marriage, the shias’ ja’fari fiqh is nearly identical to one or more of the four Sunni madhahib. The followers of the Ithna Asharis school believe that the last of the Imams have vanished and will reappearance as Mehdi (Messiah).

B.) The Ismailis– The Khojas or Western Ismailis reflect the followers of the current Aga Khan, who they claim to be the 49th Imam in this line of Prophet, and the Bohoras, or Western Ismailis, are divided into Daudis and Sulaymanis, according to the Ismailis school.

The Mumbai-based Bohoras and Khojas are believed to be adherents of this school. The adherents of these schools are thought to have a specific understanding of religious teaching.

C.) Zaidy– This school’s adherents are not found in India, but are concentrated in South Arabia. In Yemen, this sect of the Shia school is the most prevalent. These schools’ adherents are regarded as political activists. They frequently reject the principles of the twelve Shia schools.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: https://www.legalbites.in/schools-of-muslim-law/

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