The “Jajmani System” is one of the forms of trade that has been prevalent in India for a long time. The Jajmani method is a system controlled by connections based on reciprocity in village interaction relationships. It was an occupational labour division involving a system of role-relationships that allowed villagers to be self-sufficient for the most part. It is derived from the Vedic word “Yajman” which was performed in Vedic times ‘ Yajna’ or offering of fire to please the Gods. The word denotes an important individual in the village and A landowner, background. The citizens who served him, the priest, the carpenter, the ironman, the washer man, the barber, the potter, were known collectively as “praja”. The upper castes, including the Brahmins and the Rajputs, remained as the Jajmans;
Characteristics of this jajmani system.
- It was an occupational labour division involving a system of role-relationships that allowed villagers to be self-sufficient for the most part.
- Instead of between jatis, the jajmani ties are to be found between communities. A farmer’s family, for instance, gets its wooden farming tools from a certain carpenter family, and in exchange, at harvest, the carpenter gets a share of the farmer’s crop.
- Here, on both sides, the relation is inherited. Therefore the carpenter represents the same family of farmers who served his father and grandfathers. In the same way, the farming family gets its own. The tools were produced and restored by the descendants of the family of carpenters whose members-built tools for their ancestors.
- This relationship is not limited strictly to commercial trade. Just one element of the Jajmani partnership is economic trade.
- The Jajmani relationships are “the means by which the rich and powerful exploit the poor and coerce the workers to maintain the power of those who have the upper hand and the higher rank,” according to them, some Writers have strongly criticized the Jajmani relationships as “exploitative.”
- Security of occupation– Occupational protection is ensured in the case of the Jajmani method. Because this system is inherited, his profession is guaranteed by the kamin. He realizes he will not be able to obtain his livelihood if he breaks his family profession.
- Economic Security– It provides kamins with economic stability as the jajman looks after all their needs. The fireplaces are confident of their financial protection. The Jajman supports the Kamins in any monetary crisis. They extend all necessary assistance to the fireplaces.
- Close and Intimate Relationship- The Jajman and the Kamin have close and personal relationships. This correlation is internal and sentimental. Under this scheme, a spirit of fellow emotion and brotherhood evolves. Both the jajman and the kamin thoroughly understand the shortcomings and plus points of each other.
- Peaceful Living– The cut-throat-competition in the Jajmani regime for jobs or job is almost missing. There is no jajman without service, nor is there any kamin without rice. So, by creating the spirit of fellow-feeling and solidarity, this method creates an environment of peaceful life.
- Source of exploitation- Jajmani is an exploitative method. Agricultural castes, which are invariably upper castes, are looking for the services of occupational castes, normally lower castes of Eire. Beneath the garb of parental relations, the persecution of lower castes persists.
- Feeling of Superiority and Inferiority– The kamins are found low in this framework while the jajmems are positioned high. This has driven both Jajman and kamin to social injustice and a sense of dominance and inferiority in their minds. This policy has resulted in the economic level of the kamins being reduced. They are dealt with as lesser. The JaJmans are often abused and misused by them.
- Effect of Transport and Communication- The infrastructure is in a slowdown due to the massive growth of transport and connectivity. Since it made it possible for the fireplaces outside their village to obtain jobs or other profession. Now the fireplaces are no longer obligated to do the work of the Yajmans.
- Impact of Social Reform Movement- The suppressed castes reap rewards due to the influence of social reform movements. They’re struggling to stand up on the social ladder. One of the major setbacks to the Jajmani system has been provided by numerous religious reform movements, such as Arya Samaj.
Decline of jajmani system
The Jajmani arrangements are not seen at present in the rural economy in most of the villages in India. In fact, this structure deteriorated in all respects since the implementation of British rule in India. In several villages, the Jajmani partnership has by now been largely supplanted. Still, in some cases, it remains in some areas of North India.
We must also note that the Jajmani relationship is gradually being replaced, mostly because more capital is now being used in the village economy and also because modern transport makes business transactions more feasible.
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