Condition Precedent and Condition Subsequent

Condition Precedent

Section 128 – Fulfilment of condition precedent to vesting of legacy

Where a Will imposes a condition to be fulfilled before the legatee can take a vested interest in the thing bequeathed, the condition shall be considered to have been fulfilled if it has been substantially complied with.

Illustrations

(i) A legacy is bequeathed to A on condition that he shall marry with the consent to B, C, D and E. A marries with the written consent of B, C is present at the marriage. D sends a present to A previous to the marriage. E has been personally informed by A of his intentions, and has made no objection. A has fulfilled the condition.

(ii) A legacy is bequeathed to A on condition that he shall marry with the consent of B, C and D. D dies. A marries with the consent of B and C. A has fulfilled the condition.

(iii) A legacy is bequeathed to A on condition that he shall marry with the consent of B, C and D. A marries in the lifetime of B, C and D, with the consent of B and C only. A has not fulfilled the condition.

(iv) A legacy is bequeathed to A on condition that he shall marry with the consent of B, C and D. A obtains the unconditional assent of B, C and D to his marriage with E. Afterwards B, C and D capriciously retract their consent. A marries E. A has fulfilled the condition.

(v) A legacy is bequeathed to A on condition that he shall marry with the consent of B, C and D. A marries without the consent of B, C and D, but obtains their consent after the marriage. A has not fulfilled the condition.

(vi) A makes his Will whereby he bequeaths a sum of money to B if B shall marry with the consent of A’s executors. B marries during the lifetime of A, and A afterwards expresses his approbation of the marriage. A dies. The bequest to B takes effect.

(vii) A legacy is bequeathed to A if he executes a certain document within a time specified in the Will. The document is executed by A within a reasonable time, but not within the time specified in the Will. A has not performed the condition, and is not entitled to receive the legacy.

Condition Subsequent

Section 129 – Bequest to A and on failure of prior bequest to B

Where there is a bequest to one person and a bequest of the same thing to another, if the prior bequest shall fail, the second bequest shall take effect upon the failure of the prior bequest although the failure may not have occurred in the manner contemplated by the testator.

Illustrations

(i) A bequeaths a sum of money to his own children surviving him, and, if they all die under 18, to B. A dies without having ever had a child. The bequest to B takes effect.

(ii) A bequeaths a sum of money to B, on condition that he shall execute a certain document within three months after A’s death and, if he should neglect to do so, to C. B dies in the testator’s life-time. The bequest to C takes effect.

Section 130 – When second bequest not to take effect on failure of first

Where the Will shows an intention that the second bequest shall take effect only in the event of the first bequest failing in a particular manner, the second bequest shall not take effect, unless the prior bequest fails in that particular manner.

Illustration

A makes a bequest to his wife, but in case she should die in his lifetime, bequeaths to B that which he had bequeathed to her. A and his wife perish together, under circumstances which make it impossible to prove that she died before him, the bequest to B does not take effect.

Section 131 – Bequest over conditional upon happening or not happening of specified uncertain event

(1) A bequest may be made to any person with the condition super-added that, in case a specified uncertain event shall happen, the thing bequeathed shall go to another person, or that in case a specified uncertain event shall not happen, the thing bequeathed shall go over to another person.

(2) In each case the ulterior bequest is subject to the rules contained in sections 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 129 and 130.

Illustrations

(i) A sum of money is bequeathed to A, to be paid to him at the age of 18, and if he shall die before he attains that age, to B. A takes a vested interest in the legacy, subject to be divested and to go to B in case A dies under 18.

(ii) An estate is bequeathed to A with a proviso that if A shall dispute the competency of the testator to make a Will, the estate shall go to B. A disputes the competency of the testator to make a Will. The estate goes to B.

(iii) A sum of money is bequeathed to A for life, and, after his death, to B, but if B shall then be dead leaving a son, such son is to stand in the place of B. B takes a vested interest in the legacy, subject to be divested if he dies leaving a son in A’s lifetime.

(iv) A sum of money is bequeathed to A and B, and if either should die during the life of C, then to the survivor living at the death of C. A and B die before C. The gift over cannot take effect, but the representative of A takes one-half of the money, and the representative of B takes the other half.

(v) A bequeaths to B the interest of a fund for life, and directs the fund to be divided at her death equally among her three children, or such of them as shall be living at her death. All the children of B die in B’s lifetime. The bequest over cannot take effect, but the interests of the children pass to their representatives.

Section 132 – Condition must be strictly fulfilled

An ulterior bequest of the kind contemplated by section 131 cannot take effect, unless the condition is strictly fulfilled.

Illustrations

(i) A legacy is bequeathed to A, with a proviso that, if he marries without the consent of B, C and D, the legacy shall go to E. D dies. Even if A marries without the consent of B and C, the gift of E does not take effect.

(ii) A legacy is bequeathed to A, with a proviso that, if he marries without the consent of B, the legacy shall go to C. A marries with the consent of B. He afterwards becomes a widower and marries again without the consent of B. The bequest to C does not take effect.

(iii) A legacy is bequeathed to A, to be paid at 18, or marriage, with a proviso that, if A dies under 18 or marries without the consent of B, the legacy shall go to C. A marries under 18, without the consent of B. The bequest to C takes effect.

Section 133 – Original bequest not affected by invalidity of second

If the ulterior bequest be not valid the original bequest is not affected by it.

Illustrations

(i) An estate is bequeathed to A for his life with condition super-added that, if he shall not on a given day walk 100 miles in an hour, the estate shall go to B. The condition being void, A retains his estate as if no condition had been inserted in the Will.

(ii) An estate is bequeathed to A for her life and, if she do not desert her husband, to B, A is entitled to the estate during her life as if no condition had been inserted in the Will.

(iii) An estate is bequeathed to A for life, and, if he marries, to the eldest son of B for life. B at the date of the testator’s death, has not had a son. The bequest over is void under section 105, and A is entitled to the estate during his life.

Section 134 – Bequest conditioned that it shall cease to have effect in case a specified uncertain event shall happen, or not happen

A bequest may be made with the condition super-added that it shall cease to have effect in case a specified uncertain event shall happen, or in case a specified uncertain event(891″> shall not happen.

Illustrations

(i) An estate is bequeathed to A for his life, with a proviso that, incase he shall cut down a certain wood, the bequest shall cease to have any effect. A cuts down the wood. He loses his life-interest in the estate.

(ii) An estate is bequeathed to A, provided that, if he marries under the age of 25without the consent of the executors named in the will, the estate shall cease to belong to him. A marries under 25 without the consent of the executors. The estate ceases to belong to him.

(iii) An estate is bequeathed to A, provided that, if he shall not go to England within three years after the testator’s death, his interest in the estate shall cease. A does not go to England within the time prescribed. His interest in the estate ceases.

(iv) An estate is bequeathed to A, with a proviso that, if she becomes a nun, she shall cease to have any interest in the estate. A becomes a nun. She loses her interest under the will.

(v) A fund is bequeathed to A for life, and, after his death, to B, if B shall be then living, with a proviso that, if B shall become a nun, the bequest to her shall cease to have any effect. Becomes a nun in the lifetime of A. She thereby loses her contingent interest in the fund.

Section 135 – Such condition must not be invalid under section 120

In order that a condition that a bequest shall cease to have effect may be valid, it is necessary that the event to which it relates be one which could legally constitute the condition of a bequest as contemplated by section 120.

Section 136 – Result of legatee rendering impossible or indefinitely postponing act for which no time specified, and on non-performance of which subject-matter to go over

Where a bequest is made with a condition super-added that, unless the legatee shall perform a certain act, the subject-matter of the bequest shall go to another person, or the bequest shall cease to have effect but no time is specified for the performance of the act; if the legatee takes any step which renders impossible or indefinitely postpones the performance of the act required, the legacy shall go as if the legatee had died without performing such act.

Illustrations

(i) A bequest is made to A, with a proviso that, unless he enters the Army, the legacy shall go over to B. A takes Holy Orders, and thereby renders it impossible that he should fulfill the condition. B is entitled to receive the legacy.

(ii) A bequest is made to A, with a proviso that it shall cease to have any effect if he does not marry B’s daughter. A marries a stranger and thereby indefinitely postpones the fulfillment of the conditions. The bequest ceases to have effect.

Section 137 – Performance of condition, precedent or subsequent, within specified time. Further time in case of fraud

Where the will requires an act to be performed by the legatee within a specified time, either as a condition to be fulfilled before the legacy is enjoyed, or as a condition upon the non-fulfillment of which the subject-matter of the bequest is to go over to another person or the bequest is to cease to have effect, the act must be performed within the time specified, unless the performance of it be prevented by fraud, in which case such further time shall be allowed as shall be requisite to make up for the delay caused by such fraud.

If a bequest is given to one person but it is to go to another on the failure of the first on the first bequest failing, the second bequest takes effect.  The fact that the failure of the first occurred in the manner different contemplated by the testator is immaterial, except when the will expressly shows such an intention.  In the latter case, the second bequest will take effect only the first one failed as contemplated by the testator. A bequest may be made to one person with the condition super added, on the happening on non-happening of which it may go to another, but such an ulterior bequest is subject to the rules given above in section 120 to 130.  Besides the ulterior bequest will not take effect unless the condition is strictly fulfilled.  It must be noted, however that if the interior bequest is not valid, the prior (original) bequest is not affected by it.  It is open to the testator to make a conditional request, to that it ceases to have effect in case of specified uncertain event happens what does not happen; but such a condition was not be invalid under section 120.  If the condition consists in doing of a certain act by the legatee, but no time is specified for its performance, the condition will be deemed not to be performed, if the legatee take any step which renders impossible, or indefinitely postpones, the performance of the required act.  But if time is prescribed for the performance of the act it has to be performed within that specified time further time is allowed only in case of fraud practiced upon the legatee.

Aishwarya Says:

I have always been against Glorifying Over Work and therefore, in the year 2021, I have decided to launch this campaign “Balancing Life”and talk about this wrong practice, that we have been following since last few years. I will be talking to and interviewing around 1 lakh people in the coming 2021 and publish their interview regarding their opinion on glamourising Over Work.

If you are interested in participating in the same, do let me know.

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The copyright of this Article belongs exclusively to Ms. Aishwarya Sandeep. Reproduction of the same, without permission will amount to Copyright Infringement. Appropriate Legal Action under the Indian Laws will be taken.

If you would also like to contribute to my website, then do share your articles or poems at adv.aishwaryasandeep@gmail.com

We also have a Facebook Group Restarter Moms for Mothers or Women who would like to rejoin their careers post a career break or women who are enterpreneurs.

We are also running a series Inspirational Women from January 2021 to March 31,2021, featuring around 1000 stories about Indian Women, who changed the world. #choosetochallenge

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