Parliamentary Process of Law-Making

The basic function of Parliament is to make laws and there is a detailed process laid down for making the laws. All legislative proposals have to be brought in the form of Bills before Parliament. A Bill is a statute in draft and cannot become law unless it has received the approval of both the Houses of Parliament and the assent of the President of India. The process of law-making begins with the introduction of a Bill in either House of Parliament. A Bill can be introduced either by a Minister or a member other than a Minister. Later, the bill has to undergo five stages before passing such a bill into an act.

First Reading:

In the first reading, the initiator of the bill asks for a motion of leave/leave of the House (permission of the house) to introduce a bill in any of the Houses and introduces the bill by reading the title and the objectives for initiating such bill. So, in this stage, discussions will not take place. And, later on, the bill will be published in the Government’s Gazette and if the bill was published before, then there will be no need of asking for the leave of the House.

Second Reading:

In this stage, Members of the House take part in the general and detailed examination of the bill. There are three more sub-stages under the second reading stage, wherein the sub-stage of General discussion, provisions and principles of the bill initiated will be discussed and the details will not be discussed, wherein the later step there are four alternatives available in the hands of the members where they may (1) take the bill into cognizance instantly or on at a particular fixed date, or they may (2) refer the bill to a select committee of the House or (3) to the joint committee of the two houses, or (4) they may circulate the bill to garnering public opinion. In the committee sub-stage, it examines the bill in an elaborative manner, where it has the power to amend the provisions, without altering the main principles and sends it back to the House. In the consideration sub-stage, after the passing of the bill from the initiated committee, each and every clause is discussed upon and voted separately and they can also include the amendments before passing the bill.

Third reading:

In this stage, the discussion is only confined to whether accepting or rejecting the bill and no amendments are allowed to be made. The bill passes if the majority votes for it and it is authenticated by the presiding officer of the House and given to the second house for approval.

In the 4th stage, the bill comes to the second house, and the members have four alternatives. They may (1) pass the bill in the same manner sent by the first house, or they may (2) pass the bill by including any amendment to the first house for reconsideration. They also have a choice to (3) reject the bill as a whole and also have a choice to (4) not take any action on it and leave it pending.

In the 5th stage, the passed bill by both the houses goes to the President, and he can assent, reject or send back to reconsider the same.

In cases where there is a deadlock situation, which means if there is a difficulty in passing the laws then a joint sitting of both the houses takes place to discuss upon the same which is presided by the Speaker of Lok Sabha.

Aishwarya Says:

I have always been against Glorifying Over Work and therefore, in the year 2021, I have decided to launch this campaign “Balancing Life”and talk about this wrong practice, that we have been following since last few years. I will be talking to and interviewing around 1 lakh people in the coming 2021 and publish their interview regarding their opinion on glamourising Over Work.

If you are interested in participating in the same, do let me know.

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