ARTICLE: EDUCATION POLICY 2020
As we all are familiar with the earlier education system that has been criticized over a long period. If we compare the Indian educational system with the other developed nation like Germany Singapore, India was lacking behind them. There were demerits in the Indian system that needed to be revised. But in 2020 the government has brought a new education policy that has covered almost all the drawback and has brought a revolutionary change in the Indian Education System.
First education policy was introduced in 1968 when the ruling government was of Indira Gandhi. The second policy was introduced in 1986 during Rajeev Gandhi government which was later modified by Narsinha Rao in 1992. And now after 34 year the new education policy has been introduced in year 2020. Before the 2020 policy the last ground breaking that happened was ‘right to education’ it was inserted in Indian constitution under article 21. Under article 21 the children between the age group of 6-14 have right of free education.
The policy is excluding the medical and law field, these two fields. And the new education policy will be implemented from the new education session of 2020.
The New Education Policy 2020
The NEP 2020 aims at making ‘India a global knowledge superpower’ the policy introduces the following:
- Flexible subject option: earlier the student after twelfth was divided mainly into three parts that is science, commerce and humanities but the new policy allow the student to choose and take the subject according to their interest. Now student will have freedom of studying the subject they want rather than restricting them self for obtaining only the subject field and not learning according to their interest.
- Education years are been divided into 5+3+3+4: age group of 3-8 will fall under foundational stage. Then 8-11 under preparatory stage, 11-14 under middle stage, and 14-18 under secondary stage. The setting up of national mission of improved the quality of education at the primary level on literacy and numeracy.
- Instruction in regional language: the new policy stress that the medium of instruction till fifth grade will be of regional language. That means it will in the mother tongue of the children this will help children understand much better.
- Vocational training: state that: ‘Beginning with vocational exposure at early ages in middle and secondary school, quality vocational education will be integrated smoothly into higher education.’ there will be more of vocational training , students will have to do some practical work which will be a count on their report card.
- Report card will include self assessment: there will be a part of self assessment in the report card where the student will assess his or her own progress with the assessment of teachers , this will help him in long run where as every time there won’t be someone to assess you better than your own self . So the self assessment will be tough them in a very early stage.
- At least 6 % of the GDP will be spent on the education: government has decided to increase the spending on education of the nation that wills 6% of the GDP. The new policy seeks to expand access to higher education for 50% of high school students by 2035, and achieve universal adult literacy before that date.
- More skilled based: the new education system is based upon more holistic and skill oriented, as earlier student used to just learn the theory part but was lacking in skill practice. And exams were given just by riot learning.
- Multiple entry exit program: under graduation degree of 3 to 4 year will now have multiple exit where student can exit in the middle of the course and will get the certification the till date completion .And the credits that the student have achieve till date of the course will be carry by him and will be transferred further. If the student decides to leave after one year of the course he will be getting a certificate of completing, then a diploma after two years of study and a bachelor’s degree after 3 year program. After 4 years of completion he will be getting degree with research.
- Top 100 international universities are allowed to have campus in India : it has also offer top 100 university in the list of global standard ranking , to set overseas campus
In India. It is offering a landscape of India for higher education.
- Vocation education system: it aims to overcome the social status hierarchy association with vocation education. It is proposed to accomplish by the creation of the National Higher Education Qualification Framework that will be co ordinate with the National Skill Qualification Framework to ease the mobility between the streams.
- Uniform standards for Teacher qualification: we have seen revolution in the teaching area over a period of time. To attract more skilled and knowledgeable people in this area, the teaching field need to open more opportunities and growth. The New education policy facilitates a perfect blend of learning and practicing for the teacher community. It has been proposed that by 2030 the minimum degree which will be required for teaching will be of 4 years. For teacher there will national eligibility test and score of corresponding subjects will also be taken into consideration. With the exam there will be interview of the teachers and it will be the mandatory part. The plan of implementation is in process.
The Previous Education Policy
The implementation of previous policies on education has focused largely on issues of access and equity. The unfinished agenda of the National Policy on Education 1986, modified in 1992 (NPE 1986/92), is appropriately dealt with in this Policy. A major development since the last Policy of 1986/92 has been the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act 2009 which laid down legal underpinnings for achieving universal elementary education.
Previously the education system was having 10+2 system and student were having choice to choose the stream but not subject , student were not allowed to learn any subject outside the course and if they did it was not considered in their report cards.
Everything has two sides positive and negative, there are many positive points in the policy but also have some major drawbacks. firstly it has been criticized over instruction to student in the regional Language, it has been opposed because India is nation of multiple language some language are very much extend that are impossible to understand by other state.
For example if a child is in south India till 5th class and suddenly due to his father’s job he got transfer to center India where the regional language is Marathi, it will be a major difficulty for the child to understand and grasp . Though it is not mandatory for the school to teach in the regional language its is up to teacher and children, but It was also stated by the opposition that the state will force the teachers to teach in the regional language.
It is also said that the policy is anti democratic; it will dismember universities by transferring the power to governors of board. This policy is of centralized nature and is in encouragement of radical privatization. It is centralized and theta to the federal system, the sharing of the power from center to state is what the quasi federal polity.
The power from state has been taken about the education. The new education policy places incredible power of influence and money is in the hands of central government. Until 42nd amendment education was the subject which was under control of state. Today it is on the concurrent list. And in the concurrent list, once the central legislates on a matter therein, the state must follow that legislation. And new education policy is in attempt of putting the power completely under the central government. The central have power over the funding, research, curriculum, recognition, etc and this is certainly against the country’s federal claims.
It is very much fascinating on the paper part of the policy. But when there will execution it will b difficult, turning this document into reality will be not so successful.
After 34 year these new policy of education is been introduced that has turn the Indian education system upside down. Previously education system was focusing on student learning but not skills and this new policy is more focused on student’s creativity that will drastically change the coming generation from job seekers to job creators.
But the major part of the policy is its implementation. The only point that can be reviewed is the language policy as English is a language that is globally accepted so English can be a considered as a primary language. The policy looks really attractive which makes the pass out generation feel like going back to school but how much it will be done in reality is to focus.
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