Comptroller and Auditor General of India is the top authority responsible for the internal and external audits of the National and State governments expenses. It is also known as the CAG of India. It is one of the few offices directly appointed by the President of India. Part V of the Constitution of India describes the role and responsibilities of this office in Chapter V.
Constitutional Provisions Related to CAG
- Article 148 speaks about the appointment of the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India by the President of India, and the oath and conditions of service.
- Article 149 deals with the Duties and Powers of the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.
- Article 150 states that the accounts of the Union and of the states shall be kept in such form as the President may on the advice of the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.
- Article 151 States that the reports of the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India relating to the accounts of the Union shall be submitted to the President, who shall cause them to be laid before each House of Parliament; And the accounts relating to the States shall be submitted to the Governor of the State, who shall cause them to be laid before the Legislature of the state.
Role of CAG in India
- The role of this office is to uphold the provisions of the Indian constitution and laws enacted by the Parliament in the field of financial administration
- The role of the CAG in the auditing of Government Companies is also limited. They are audited by private auditors who are appointed by the Central Government on the advice of the CAG.
- The CAG is an agent to the Parliament and is only responsible to the Parliament and conducts audits of expenditure on behalf of the Parliament.
- The CAG has to ascertain whether the money spent was authorised for the purpose for which it was spent and whether the expenditure conforms to the authority that governs it.
- The CAG also can focus whether the expenditure made is in the public interest or not.
The powers of the CAG, regarding audits, are provided for in the Comptroller and Auditor General of India (Duties, Powers and Conditions of Service) Act, 1971. According to this act, the CAG can audit:
- All receipts and expenditure from the Consolidated Fund of India and of the states and union territories.
- All transactions relating to the Contingency Funds and Public Accounts.
- All trading, manufacturing, profit and loss accounts and balance sheets and other subsidiary accounts kept in any department.
- All stores and stock of all government offices or departments.
- Accounts of all government companies set up under the Indian Companies Act, 1956.
- Accounts of all central government corporations whose Acts provide for audit by the CAG.
- Accounts of all authorities and bodies substantially funded from the Consolidated Fund. Accounts of any authority, even though not substantially funded by the government, at either the request of the Governor/President or at the CAG’s own initiative.
The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India is the Constitutional Authority in India, established under Article 148 of the Constitution of India. The CAG is authorised the power to Audit all receipts and expenditure of the Government of India and of the State Governments, including those of independent bodies and corporations significantly financed by the Government. The CAG is also the statutory auditor of Government-owned corporations and conducts supplementary audits of government companies in which the Government has an equity share of at least 51 per cent or subsidiary companies of existing government companies.
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