It must be known that no discussions on matters of general public importance can be taken in the parliament except on a motion made with the consent of the presiding officer. The presiding officer can be the chairman of the Lok Sabha or vice president in the Rajya Sabha. The House expresses its decisions on various issues through adoption or rejection of motions moved to by either ministers or private members.
Motions moved by the members fall into three principal categories Viz.,
1. Substantive motion : it is a self contained independent proposal which can stand on its own and conveys clear meaning. For example, impeachment of the president or removal of chief election commissioner.
2. Substitute motion : it is a motion that is moved in substitution of an original motion and as an alternative to it. If this motion is adopted then it supersedes the original motion.
3. Subsidiary motion : this motion has no meaning by itself and cannot state the decision of the house without reference to an original motion or proceding. It can be an ancillary motion, a superseding motion or an amendment to a part of the original.
Now we will discuss various types of motions that can be moved in the Parliament.
CLOSURE MOTION : it is a motion moved by a member to cut short the debate on a matter before the house. If approved, the debate has to be stopped and the matter is then put to vote. There can be four kinds of closure motions simple closure, closer by compartment, kangaroo closure and guillotine closure.
Simple closure is when the matter has been sufficiently discussed and is put to vote. Closer by compartment is done when parts of the bill are discussed separately and not as a whole. Closure only important clauses are taken up and rest are skipped. Guillotine closure is one when the bills remain undiscussed.
PRIVILEGE MOTION : Privilege motion is raised when there is breach of the Parliamentary privilege by a minister. Moved by another member who seeks censure of the concerned minister.
CALLING ATTENTION MOTION : this is introduced in the Parliament by a member to call attention to a matter of urgent public importance. This is an Indian innovation in parliamentary procedure since 1954. Unlike the zero hour, it is mentioned in the rules of procedure.
ADJOURNMENT MOTION : motion is raised to draw attention of the house to a definite matter of urgent public importance. The support of 50 members to be admitted. It is regarded as an extraordinary device. It involves an element of censure against the government and hence rajya Sabha is not permitted to make use of this device. It must last for more than two and a half hours. This should not cover more than 1 matter.
NO CONFIDENCE MOTION : article 75 the constitution says that the Council of ministers shall be responsible collectively to the Lok Sabha. The ministry remains in power as long as it enjoys majority in the Lok Sabha. Motion to be introduced it needs the support of 50 members.
CENSURE MOTION : censure motion is similar to the no confidence motion. But unlike no confidence motion at the censure motion is passed in the Parliament the ministers need not resign. Raised against the single minister or a group of ministers to censure them.
MOTION OF THANKS : first session after each general election and first session of every fiscal year is addressed by the president. In this address, the president outlines the policies and programs of the government. Later on this motion is put to vote and must be passed in the house. Otherwise it amounts to the defeat of the government.
NO-DAY-YET-NAMED MOTION : it is a motion that has been admitted by the speaker but no date has been fixed for its discussion.
POINT OF ORDER : a member can raise a point of order when the proceedings of a house do not follow the normal rules of procedure. It should raise a question that is within the cognizance of the speaker. It is an extraordinary device and suspends the proceedings before the house.
SPECIAL MENTION : a motion which does not belong to the above categories of motions can be raised under special mention in rajya Sabha. Its Lok Sabha equivalent is known as notice under rule 377.
The above were the different types of motions that can be moved in the houses of the parliament. These are important devices that are given to the representatives elected by the people to practise democratic discussions.
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