The word ‘terrorism’ is derived from Latin word ‘Tersere’ which means ‘great fear’ or ‘dread’. ‘Terrorist’ and ‘terrorism’ originated the French revolution of late 18th century but came into existence in 1970 during conflicts of Northern Ireland and Basque Country or Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Terrorism is the use of intentional violence to realize and acheive political aims. The word terrorism is used when it is done to destroy peace among countries through war. Terrorism is ‘morally wrong’. Governments and non-state groups use the term to abuse opposing groups. Right-wing and left-wing political organizations nationalist groups, religious groups, revolutionaries and ruling governments use the term terrorism to achieve their objectives.
In 2006, it was estimated that there are 109 definitions of terrorism. American political philosopher Michael Walzer in 2002 defined terrorism as “deliberate killing of innocent people to spread fear through population and force the hands of its political leader”.
It refers to acts of terrorism conducted by a state against another state or its own citizens.
International terrorism involves violent acts, appears to influence policy of a government by intimidation or to affect the conduct of a government, affects people by mass destruction, assassination or kidnapping. It occurs primarily outside U.S., or cross national boundaries or locals in which their perpetrators operate or seek asylum.
An example of terrorism is carrying out a strategic bombing in another opposing country, which is designed to affect civilian support, would not be considered terrorism if it were authorized by a government. It is not universally accepted because there is not an existence of state terrorism. According to Ali Khan, difference lies in a political judgment.
Some groups, when involved in liberation struggle are called terrorists by western government or media but later, they were called statesmen by similar organizations for example, Menachem Begin and Nelson Mandela.
Types of Terrorism:
Civil Disorder: Interferes with the peace, and security.
Political Terrorism: designed to develop fear in community for political purposes.
Non-Political Terrorism: conscious design to create and maintain a high degree of fear but the end is individual.
Anonymous Terrorism: terrorist attacks claimed by their perpetrators or attributed by governments to specific terrorist groups.
Quasi-terrorism: use modalities and techniques of terrorist and generate similar reaction. For example, fleeing felon who takes hostages maybe a quasi-terrorist, methods are almost like terrorists, but purposes are quite different.
Limited political terrorism: terrorism which is committed for political motives but not a part of concerted campaign to capture control of the state.
Act as a form of asymmetric warfare in order to directly force a government to agree to demands.
Intimidate group of people to avoid future injury.
Get attention and political support for a cause.
Inspire more people to the cause by provoking response or over-reaction from enemies to the cause.
Adoption of political philosophy such as socialism, anarchism, etc.
Preventing a group from occupying particular territory
Ending government oppression
Responding to a violent act
Ways in which terrorist groups end:
Killing of group’s leader
I have always been against Glorifying Over Work and therefore, in the year 2021, I have decided to launch this campaign “Balancing Life”and talk about this wrong practice, that we have been following since last few years. I will be talking to and interviewing around 1 lakh people in the coming 2021 and publish their interview regarding their opinion on glamourising Over Work.
If you are interested in participating in the same, do let me know.
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