Corruption is defined as a form of dishonesty or a criminal offense which is undertaken by a person or an organization in order to acquire abuse power for one’s private gain. Corruption includes bribery and it may also involve practices which are legal in many countries.
According to Stephen D. Morris, political corruption is the illegitimate use of public power to benefit a private interest. The effect of corruption is to increase costs and construction time, lower the quality and decrease the benefit.
Corruption can occur in different ranges. It can range from small favors between people, i.e., petty corruption, to large scale known as grand corruption.
Examples of petty corruption are small spaces such as police stations, registration offices, and many other private and government sectors.
Grand corruption refers to higher level of corruption that requires legal, political and economic systems.
Systemic corruption refers to the corruption due to weaknesses of an organization. It is also known as endemic corruption. Factors of increasing systematic corruption include monopolistic powers, low pay, lack of transparency, bribery, etc.
Corruption had been a major issue in China where society depends largely on personal relationships. The main tool of Chinese corruption is bribery, which also include nepotism, smuggling, kickback, fraud, deceptions, and illegal business transactions.
The following are the causes of corruption:
Greed of money
High levels of market monopolization and bureaucracy
Low level of democracy and education
Low press and economic freedom
Large ethnic divisions
Weak property rights
Lack of commitment to society
Corruption occurs in different sectors, it can be public or private industry.
Public corruption includes corruption of political process such as tax collectors and police, public funds for contracts, hiring and grants. It is the abuse of public power, office for personal gain or bribes.
Police corruption is designed to obtain financial benefits for police officers for not pursuing an arrest or investigation. One of the important examples of police corruption is accepting bribe instead of reporting drug cases.
Judicial corruption is designed for misconduct of judges, improper sentencing a case, or bias in hearing. It can also be conducted by defense attorneys. It occurs when politician bribes prosecutor to file charge against opposing politician.
Corruption is health care is the most dangerous corruption because it affects health of the society. It may appear as theft, nepotism, or as undue influence.
There are multiple methods used in systematic and grand corruption:
Embezzlement, theft and fraud
Abuse of discretion
Theories behind fight against corruption which are principal based are not suitable to target systemic corruption. Multilateral institutions are crucial in the fight against corruption.
They found no convincing evidence on their contribution or structure.
Policies are based on success experience and common sense.
Policies have to be carefully-tailored.
Policies can improve business environment.
Republic of Armenia aims to achieve zero corruption through raising awareness.
More than 60 years of democratic world has made people so immune to corruption that they are now used to live in this system which doesn’t have the complete anti-corruption programs which can take the initiative of making this world corruption free.
I have always been against Glorifying Over Work and therefore, in the year 2021, I have decided to launch this campaign “Balancing Life”and talk about this wrong practice, that we have been following since last few years. I will be talking to and interviewing around 1 lakh people in the coming 2021 and publish their interview regarding their opinion on glamourising Over Work.
If you are interested in participating in the same, do let me know.
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