The Indian economy is characterized by the existence of a vast majority of informal or unorganized labor employment. As per a survey carried out by the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) in 2009–10, the total employment in the country was of 46.5 crore comprising around 2.8 crore in the organized and the remaining 43.7 crore workers in the unorganized sector. Out of these workers in the unorganized sector, there are 24.6 crore workers employed in agricultural sector, about 4.4 crore in construction work and remaining in manufacturing and service. The dictionary meaning or we can say the simple description of unorganized sectors is termed as the unorganized sector of the economy refers to the house-hold based manufacturing activity and small scale and tiny sector of industry.
An unorganized sector is one in which there is no stability in profits or gains. Its production is limited and it is confined to limited area. It requires less man power and investment. The handicrafts, artisan professions, khadi and village industries, such as handloom sector, beedi making, agarbatti making, hand paper manufacture and match box industries etc., can be located in the unorganized sector of the Indian economy. The unorganised sector plays a pivotal role in society, so they need special attention. Most socially and economically deprived sections of the society are engaged in informal economic activities. The government realised the pivotal role performed by unorganised sector in the economy. Therefore, many legislations and schemes are initiated by the government for the benefit of unorganised workers. Further various social security measures provided by industrial units to their employees in the form of pension, provident fund and gratuity. Non-statutory benefits also provided to workers such as medical facilities, food, canteens etc. These benefits help in motivating the workers for their active contribution in the prosperity of the industry and when the workers are fully satisfied with the conditions of service, then they give their best efforts for the growth of the society.
CATEGORIES OF UNORGANIZED LABOUR FORCE :
The Ministry of Labor, Government of India, has categorized the unorganized labor force under four groups depending on occupation, nature of employment, especially distressed categories and service categories :
Under Terms of Occupation – Small and marginal farmers, landless agricultural laborers, share croppers, fishermen, those engaged in animal husbandry, beedi rolling, labeling and packing, building and construction workers, leather workers, weavers, artisans, salt workers, workers in brick kilns and stone quarries, workers in saw mills, oil mills, etc. come under this category.
Under Terms of Nature of Employment – Attached agricultural laborers, bonded laborers, migrant workers, contract and casual laborers come under this category.
Under Terms of Specially Distressed Category – Toddy tappers, scavengers, carriers of head loads, drivers of animal driven vehicles, loaders and unloaders come under this category.
Under Terms of Service Category – Midwives, domestic workers, fishermen and women, barbers, vegetable and fruit vendors,newspaper vendors, etc., belong to this category.
PROBLEMS FACED BY UNORGANISED WORKERS:
The increase of workforce in the unorganized sector has become a significant feature of Indian economy. They are found both in rural as well as urban areas. In fact,Indian economy is dominated by the unorganized labours. Despite the fact, the unorganized workers have been facing various problems in their daily life.
- Low Wages – The unorganized workers are the less paid workers in the society. Equal pay for equal work is not applied to the unorganized workers. Additional incentive, allowances, bonus, fringe benefits are not given to them. Facing exploitation, discrimination and injustice in their work place has become an unprotested phenomenon of their life.
- Less Protected – The unorganized workers are not adequately protected by the labour laws. They are exploited by the by the middlemen, contractors and employers. They work in unhygienic condition and get less attention from the labour and trade unions. They are mentally and physically tortured. Child workers are abused. Women workers are sexually harassed at their work place. Legal protection does not reach to them due to illiteracy, ignorance and the far wide location and tinny nature of their work.
- Deprived from Basic Amenities – The unorganized workers work in a very unhygienic and overcrowded condition where there is no adequate sanitation and water facility in their working areas. They live in a very congested room. The children of such workers are deprived from the basic needs like education, health and nutrition.
- No Job Security – The nature of employment of unorganized workers is temporary. Their job is instable,casual and scattered. They do not get stable and permanent employment opportunity. They engage in casual activities with no specific duties. Seasonality nature of their job makes them as disguised labour There is no act like Provident Fund act, Bonus act, Pension act, Factory act, Maternity act for unorganized labourers. (Chatterjee, 2016). In many cases they loss their due to minor reasons. In fact, the longevity of their job depends upon the will of the employers.
- Ignorance of Occupational Safety – Most of the unorganized workers are not aware about their occupational hazardous. They do not have the knowledge of high risk of factory’s dust, toxic chemical,lauded sound generated from obsolete machine. They work in extreme temperature and cold which adversely affects on their health. They suffer from respiratory, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, headache,hearing, eye and skin problems. Many tragedy death incidents of labourer happen due to ignorance of their occupational safety.
- Exploitation – The unorganized workers are the less protected workers than the organized sectors. They become the ultimate victim of ill-treatment, exploitation and deprivation. They are not paid equally for their equal works especially the women and child workers which they cannot complain. They cannot claim remuneration for their overtime duty and even cannot claim the benefits of paid holiday and paid leave.
- Poverty – Poverty is the utmost problem of unorganized workers. Poor economic background compels them to remain as unorganized workers. They could not mobilize more resources to increase productivity or to initiate new entrepreneurs and thus, could not earn regularly. Their nature of work is inferior in quality and thus they are paid lump sum. Very often they fall in the web of indebtedness.
- Less Relation with Labour Union – Most of the unorganized labourers are not aware about the existence labour unions and their provisions to protect the interest of the unorganized workers. They work without any control of formal labour union or organization. They have less formal relations with their respective labour unions. Very often the employer of the unorganized sector violates the rights of the unorganized workers by taking the advantages of this unfamiliar relation with their labour unions.
- Traditional Technique – The work of unorganized sector is based on traditional subsistence and lack of modern technology. The worker of unorganized sector mostly relays on the traditional techniques. They do not have skill how to use modern technology. Their production is local market oriented and local people engage around it. They bear heavy work load due to their labour intensive works and dearth of modern technology. They cannot compete with the machine products and thus have to loss their job.
GOVERNMENT POLICIES AND ACTS FOR UNORGANIZED WORKERS IN INDIA:
Despite of outstanding contribution to national economy, the unorganized worker faces multifaceted problems. The unorganized worker works in unhealthy working condition, they have no social security and adequate legislations, no principle of promotion, no proper education and skills, no sufficient row materials and market, no maintenance of equal pay for equal work for bonded, women and child workers who are often exploited and harassed at the working place. Therefore, to look into the multi-folded problems of the unorganized labourers, the Government of India has under taken numbers of schemes, policies and enacted laws to ensure social security of the labour section of the society. After independence, numbers of social security provisions had been incorporated in the Indian Constitution in the form of Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP).
Further, the Government of India enacted various Acts such as The Industrial Disputes Act, (1947), The Coal Mines Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, (1948), The Minimum Wages Act, (1948), The Employees Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act,(1952), The Maternity Benefit Act, (1961), The Contract Labour Act, (1970), The Payment Gratuity Act, (1972),The Building and Construction Workers Act, (1996) etc. to protect the interest of labours. But the unorganized workers are rarely benefitted and protected by these Acts. Therefore, the Government of India enacted the Unorganised Worker’s Social Security Act, 2008 which is exclusively committed to ensure social security for the unorganized workers of India.
THE UNORGANIZED WORKER’S SOCIAL SECURITY ACT, 2008:
The Government of India has enacted the Unorganized Workers’ Social Security Act, 2008 in order to promote social security measures for the unorganized workers. This Act is exclusively designed for the unorganized workers to take up measures for unorganized workers relating to the matters covering life and disability, health and maternity benefits, old age protection and any other benefits determined by the central government. The Act also empowers the state government to formulate suitable welfare policies for the unorganized workers relating to provident fund, employment injury benefits, housing, educational scheme, skill up-gradation of workers, funeral assistance and old age homes.
The Act provides the provision of forming the National Social Security Board at central level to recommend the central government about the welfare schemes for unorganized workers, to advise the central government in administrative matters, to monitor the welfare schemes of central government for unorganized workers, to review the progress of registration, to assess the performance at state level, to review the expenditure of funds and any other functions assigned by the central government. Accordingly, the Government of India formed the National Social Security Board for Unorganized Workers in 2009. Similarly, the Act also instructs to form the State Social Security Board to recommend the state government for suitable welfare scheme for unorganized workers, to advise the state government in administrative matters, to monitor the welfare schemes of state government for unorganized workers, to review the progress of registration, to assess the performance at district level, to review the expenditure of funds and any other functions assigned by the state government (Mann, 2010).
The Act has listed out some of the acts such as The Workmen’s Compensation Act, 1923 (8 of 1923), The Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 (14 of 1947), The Employees’ State Insurance Act, 1948 (34 of 1948), The Employees’ Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952 (19 of 1952), The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 (53 of 1961), The Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972 (39 of 1972) to be dealt with the unorganized workers. Besides, the Act has listed out 10 social security schemes for the unorganized workers which can be discussed as below:
- The Indra Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS): The Indra Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme was initially launched in the name of National Old Age Pension Scheme (NOAPS) on 15th August, 1995 as a part of National Social Assistant Programme (NSAP) and finally the scheme was renamed as the Indra Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme on 19th November, 2007. The scheme is a non-contributory pension scheme in which the beneficiaries do not need to contribute any amount to get the monthly pension of Rs. 200/- for the age group of 60-79 years and Rs. 500/- for the age group of 80 and above. However, the beneficiary must be lived under Below Poverty Line (BPL).
- The National Family Benefit Scheme (NFBS): The National Family Benefit Scheme is also a part of National Social Assistant Programme (NSAP). Under the scheme the bereaved family is provided an assistance of Rs. 20, 000/- if the prime income holder of the family including the female (if she is the only bread earner of the family) died due to natural or accidental cases (Sinha et al, 2017).This benefit is applicable to the age group of 18-60 years.
- The Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY): The Janani Suraksha Yojana was launched in 2005 by renaming the existence the National Maternity Benefit Scheme which was also a component of National Social Assistant Programme (NSAP). The scheme is aimed at providing the financial assistance of Rs. 500/- for pre-natal and postnatal maternity care of 19 years and above age for the first two live births to the women belonging to Below Poverty Line (Jerinabi & Santhi, 2012).
- The Handloom Weavers Comprehensive Welfare Scheme (HWCWS): The Handloom Weavers Comprehensive Welfare Scheme is exclusively for unorganized workers in the field of handloom weaves which comprises of two sub-schemes i.e., (a) the Health Insurance Scheme (HIS) to provide health insurance for handloom weavers and (ii) Mahatma Gandhi Bunkar Bima Yojana (MGBBY) to provide life insurance coverage in case of natural and accidental death and also for total or partial disability due to accident. The handloom weavers or workers in the age group of 18-50 years would be provided life insurance coverage under Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana (PMJJBY). The Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana (PMJJBY) provides 2 lakhs life insurance coverage for death due to any reason of the handloom weavers or workers in the age group of 18-50 years with the total annual premium of Rs. 330/-. The accidental and disability insurance of handloom weavers or workers in the age group of 18-50 years would be provided under the Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana (PMSBY). Under the Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana (PMSBY) 2 lakhs insurance coverage for accidental death and 1 lakh insurance cover for disability would be given to the handloom weavers or workers in the age group of 18-50 years with annual premium of Rs. 12 which will be borne by the Government of India. Besides, the closed group of handloom weavers or workers in the age group of 51-59 years who have been registered before 31May, 2017 under the Mahatma Gandhi Bunkar Bima Yojana (MGBBY) scheme would also be covered under the Mahatma Gandhi Bunkar Bima Yojana (MGBBY). The handloom weavers including the widowed weavers can also avail the benefits of the scheme. The amount of Rs. 1200/- scholarship facility each up to two children of handloom weavers is also given under this scheme (PIB, 2018: Government of India).
- The Handicrafts Artisans Comprehensive Welfare Scheme (HACWS): There are two sub-schemes under the Handicraft Artisans Comprehensive Welfare Scheme. One is Bima Yojana for Handicraft Artisans currently merged with Aam Admi Bima Yojana and another is Rajiv Gandhi Shilpi Swasthaya Bima Yojana currently merged with Rashtriya Shilpi Swasthaya Bima Yojana. The Bima Yojana for Handicraft Artisans provides life accidental and disability insurance to the handicraft artisans both male and female to the age group of 18-60 years (Annual Report 2007-08- Handicraft Ministry of textiles). The Rajiv Gandhi Shilpi Swasthaya Bima Yojana aims at proving healthcare facilities to the handicrafts artisans in the age group of 18-60 years including the three members of the family out of spouse, dependent parents and children.
- The Pension to Master Craft Persons Scheme (PMCPS): Under the Pension to Master Craft Persons Scheme financial assistance is given to the senior Master Craft persons who are the recipients of Shilpi Guru Award, National Award, National Merit Certificate or State Award in handicrafts above the age of 60 years.However, the beneficiary’s annual income should be less than Rs.50,000/-. The qualified beneficiaries will be provided financial assistance either in the form of allowances or lump sum aid or both.
- The National Scheme for Welfare of Fishermen and Training and Extension (NSWFTE): The National Scheme for Welfare of Fishermen and Training and Extension is a centrally sponsored scheme operating under the Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairy and Fishery, Ministry of Agriculture of Government of India. The scheme provides basic amenities like drinking water, sanitation and also to ensure better living standard for fishermen and their family members, social and economic security for active fishermen and their dependents. The social and economic security scheme covers under the scheme are:
- Group Accident Insurance for Active Fishermen: Under the scheme the insurance covers 2 lakhs for death and 1 lakh for total or partial disability of the fishermen. The insurance also covers an amount of Rs. 10,000 for hospital expenditure.
- Development of Model Fishermen Village: The Model Fishermen Village would have community hall for at least 75 households. The community hall will have separate toilet for male and female and water supply facility. The community hall will promote as workplace for all fishermen. Drinking water supply facility through tubewell will also be provided in a ratio of 1:20 houses. The scheme also grants house for the fishermen family. In order to avail the housing facility the village must have minimum 10 households.
- Saving-cum-Relief: Under this policy the fishermen have to contribute Rs. 100 per month for a period of nine months. Both the central and state government each contributes Rs. 100 per month for a period of nine months. Thus, out of total saving Rs. 2700, an amount of Rs. 900 will be given for three months as a relief to the fishermen during the three months of fishing ban period.
- Training and Extension: Under this scheme the fishermen are provided 15 days training programme with stipend and travelling allowances, publication of training handbook and manuals in order to promote the awareness and skills of fishing. The scheme also facilitates to conduct seminar, symposium, workshop and international conference.
- The Janashree Bima Yojana (JBY): The Janashree Bima Yojana is currently merged with Aam Admi Bima Yojana. The Janashree Bima Yojana (JBY) is aimed at providing the life insurance coverage to both rural and urban persons who are living under below poverty line and marginally above poverty line. The scheme provides the life insurance benefits of Rs. 30,000/- for natural deaths, Rs. 37,500/- for partial disability for the persons of age group 18 -59 years (Mishra & Mishra, 2016).
- Aam Admi Bima Yojana (AABY): The Aam Aadmi Bima Yojana is a social security scheme aims at providing financial assistance to the landless rural poor who are living under Below Poverty Line. The scheme was launched on 2nd October, 2007 covering the head of the family or the earning member of the family (Chandra,2017). The scheme covers all the persons in the age group of 18-59 years and the amount of premium of Rs. 200/- per person per annum which is equally contributed by both the central government and the state government, so the insured person need not to pay any premium (Mohan, 2017). The scheme covers the benefits of Rs. 30,000/- for natural death, Rs. 75,000/- for accidental death or accidental permanent disability leading to loss of 2 eyes or 2 limbs and Rs. 37, 000/- for partial permanent disability leading to loss of 1 eye or 1 limb due to accident (Mishra & Mishra, 2016). The scheme also offers scholarship benefit of Rs.100/- per month to the students studying in class 9th to 12th for maximum two children of the policy holders.
- The Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY): The Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana was launched by the Government of India in 2007 with a commitment to provide health insurance coverage to unorganized sector workers belonging Below Poverty Line. The scheme covers the benefits of Rs. 30, 000/- per family for treatment including the hospital expenses (Forgia & Nagpal, 2012). It is a cashless insurance benefit with smart card facility covering all pre-existed diseases. The funding of the scheme is contributed by the central government with 75% and the state government with 25 % while the beneficiaries have to pay Rs. 30/- only as the registration fee.
Besides these social security measures the Government of India has undertaken some new schemes and Act to ensure social security for the unorganized workers of India which can be discussion as follows:-
- The Atal Pension Yojana (APY): The Atal Pension Yojana is a new scheme launched by the Government of India in May, 2015 attempts to provide financial security by ensuring pension benefits to the unorganized workers.The pension scheme covers all the people in the age group of 18-40 years and can avail the pension benefits at the age of 60 years of Rs. 1000/-, 2000/-, 3000/-, 4000/- and 5000/- by contributing monthly amount of Rs. 42/-, 84/-,126/-, 168/- and 210/- those who subscribes the policy at the age of 18 years respectively. (Mohan, 2017). After the death of the subscriber, the spouse of the subscriber can claim the benefit. Upon the death of spouse, the nominee will be continued. The Government of India contributes 50% of the subscriber’s contribution or Rs. 1000 whichever is lower for a period of five years but subjected to subscribe the scheme prior to 31 December every year and should not be an income tax payer (Mohan, 2017).
- The Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana (PMJJBY): The Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana is an insurance scheme for all people launched in May, 2015. The Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana (PMJJBY) provides 2 lakhs life insurance coverage for death due to any reason for one year to the people in the age group of 18-50 years with the affordable annual premium of Rs. 330 (Kumar, 2019). The policy facilitates the auto-debit facility from the saving bank account of the policy holders.
- The Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana (PMSBY): The Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana is asocial security scheme launched in May, 2015. The Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana (PMSBY) covers 2 lakhs life insurance for the age group of 18-70 years for accidental death and permanent total disability leading to loss of both eyes or hands or feet due to accident (Kumar, 2019). The policy also provides of Rs. 1 lakh insurance coverage for permanently partial disability leading to loss of one eye or hand or feet (Kumar, 2017). The premium of the policy is Rs. 12 per annum per person with auto-debt facility from the bank account of the policy holders.
- Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA): The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) was passed in 2005 and later in 2009 it was renamed as the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA). The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) is also known as the MGNREG Scheme. The Act ensures the legal right of poor people to work at minimum wage rate with dignity. The Act/scheme provides employment opportunity for 100 days work for one financial year with job card facility to every household who are willing to do unskilled manual work. The Act also provides time-bound employment within the 15 days of application for work; if it is not done the daily unemployment allowance should be given as per the Act (Kumar & Chakraborty, 2016). The Act also generates 33% employment opportunity to the rural women who have registered and requested for work. The scheme has been implemented by the Panchayati Raj Institutions with social audit system.
ROLE OF INDIAN JUDICIARY FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE RIGHTS OF THE UNORGANISED WORKER :
Sometimes due to failure of proper implementation of legislations judiciary come forward for the protection of the rights of unorganised workers. Unorganised workers indeed remain outside the purview of social security measures.
Indian Judiciary played a pivotal role in the development of modern jurisprudence and made a significant contribution to the protection of interests of weaker section of society which could be reflected from several decisions. Judiciary also tried to extend the benefits of labour welfare measurements such as the Employees Compensation Act, Payment of Gratuity Act, Employees State Insurance Act, Employees Provident Fund etc.
Judiciary has exclusive responsibility for the protection of interest of a weaker section of society. Through various judgments, the Supreme Court of India emphasised on Right to Livelihood as an inherent part of Right to Life.
In the case of Rural Litigation and Entitlement Kendra, Dehradun v. Uttar Pradesh. The court stated that the right to life under Article 21 of the Constitution of India also includes the right to livelihood.
In the case of People Union for Democratic Rights v. Union Of India. The court held that beggar is also a kind of forced labour and it is a violation of the right to live with dignity, respect and fundamental human rights. If any person is taking the service of any labour and does not pay the minimum wages, then it is a violation of Article 23 of the Constitution of India.
In the case of Sanjit Roy v State Of Rajasthan,It was held that payment of wages lower than the minimum wage to the person employed on famine relief work is violative of Article 23. Whenever Any labour or service is taken by the state from any person, who is affected by drought and scarcity condition the state cannot pay him less wage than the minimum wages on the ground that it is given help to them to meet famine situation. The state cannot take advantage of their helplessness.
In the case of Deena vs Union of India.The court held that the labour work that is taken from the prisoners it without paying sufficient wages is considered forced labour, and it is an infringement of Article 23 of The Constitution.The prisoners have the right to claim the reasonable wages for their service rendered, and the court must enforce the claim of labourers.
In the case of Bandhua Mukti Morcha v. Union Of India.The court held that whenever the public interest litigation if initiated alleging the practice of bonded labour, the government needs to accept it as the opportunities and to examine the issues or problem of labour and make efforts to eradicate the practice of bonded labour and protect the labours. Article 23 of the Constitution of India, which prohibits the practice of bonded labour protects and helps the labours to earn for their livelihood.
In the case of Neeraja Chaudhary v. State of Madhya Pradesh. Justice Bhagwati held that it is not sufficient for the Government to find about the existence of bonded labour, but it is also necessary that the labourers should be rehabilitated because if they are not rehabilitated, then they would be driven to despair, poverty and helplessness.
Article 21 states that bonded labour should be identified and efforts need to be made by the Government to complete rehabilitation of the labourers. Directive Principles of State policy was enacted as the guidelines for the government. Under DPSP, the State Government needs to provide a basic human dignity to bonded labour and if it is not fulfilled, then it will result in the infringement of Article 21 of the Constitution.
JUDICIAL TRENDS CONCERNING THE EXTENSION OF THE BENEFITS OF SOCIAL SECURITY SCHEMES TO UNORGANISED WORKERS :
In the case of Daily Rated Casual Labour V. Union Of India, it was held that whenever the employees are classified into the casual and regular employees.leads to the infringement of Article 14 and Article 16 of the Constitution. It is also against the spirit of Article 7 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social And Cultural Rights,1966. When the labourers are not paid minimum wages as prescribed by the Minimum Wages Act, then it amounts to exploitation of labour. The court also stated that the Government should be the model employer and not take advantage of its dominant position.
In the case of State V. Banwari.The High Court of Allahabad stated that “The person cannot refuse to render the services merely on the ground that such labours belong to the Scheduled Caste. This is done to protect the interest of weaker sections of society.
In the case of Siddheshwar, Hubli v Employees State Insurance Corporation.The court has widened the definition of the employee under this act and also states that this Act applies even to those persons whose services are lent to the principal employer.
In the landmark case M.C Mehta v State of Tamil Nadu.The Supreme Court of India gave order to the Government to do a survey and to stop the child labour in the matchstick and cracker factories. The court also directed that the minimum wage paid by the subcontractors under Minimum Wages Act should be directly paid and the provisions of section 21 of the Contract Labour Act, 1970 should be observed.
In the case of Delhi Jal Board v. National Campaign For Dignity and Rights of Sewerage and Allied Workers.Neither the lawmakers nor those entrusted with the duty of implementing laws enacted for the welfare of unorganized workers have put in place appropriate mechanism for the protection of persons employed by or through contractors to whom service meant to benefit the public at large are outsourced by state and its agencies for doing workers, which are inherently hazardous and dangerous to live nor have they made provision for payment of reasonable, compensation in the event of death.
Therefore Judiciary is active to take all necessary steps for protection of the rights of unorganised workers and implementing social security welfare schemes and also extend the advantages of various labour welfare legislation.
It is widely acknowledge that the unorganized workers are the most vulnerable and insecure section of the society despite of their tremendous contribution to Indian economy. There has been increased of unorganized workers in alarming rate but their basic problems are remained unsolved. Though, the Government of India has enacted dozens of Acts aims at ensuring social security for the unorganized labours but the acts unable to attain the expected goals. A lot of schemes and measures have been undertaken by the government. to protect the rights and interest of the unorganised sector workers .
It also took a step by enacted a legislation ‘Unorganized Social Security Act, 2008’ for providing underlying social security to the unorganised workers who work in an unorganised sector. In pursuance of this Act, the Government of India has implemented numerous schemes such as Aam Admi Bima Yojana(Life Insurance), old age pension scheme, Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (health insurance) etc.
The Central Government, under the requisite section and the State Government under the specified section, have been empowered to make the rules for the smooth functioning.
The Central Government has power under section 11 to give direction to the State Government and National Board for the proper implementation of the provisions of this Act.
I have always been against Glorifying Over Work and therefore, in the year 2021, I have decided to launch this campaign “Balancing Life”and talk about this wrong practice, that we have been following since last few years. I will be talking to and interviewing around 1 lakh people in the coming 2021 and publish their interview regarding their opinion on glamourising Over Work.
If you are interested in participating in the same, do let me know.
The copyright of this Article belongs exclusively to Ms. Aishwarya Sandeep. Reproduction of the same, without permission will amount to Copyright Infringement. Appropriate Legal Action under the Indian Laws will be taken.
If you would also like to contribute to my website, then do share your articles or poems at email@example.com
We also have a Facebook Group Restarter Moms for Mothers or Women who would like to rejoin their careers post a career break or women who are enterpreneurs.