Human Rights Council : Meaning, Composition, and Functions

The Human Rights Council is an intergovernmental body within the United Nation system tasked with promoting and protection of Human Rights around the world, as well as investigating and making recommendations on cases of human rights breaches. Throughout the year, it has the ability to examine any thematic human rights concerns and situation that deserves its attention. Human rights bodies is a body to promote and protect human rights. There are two bodies of Human rights, first important body was commission on human rights which is appointed by Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) to approve by general assembly. Second important sub-commission on protection and protection of human rights established by ECOSOC. They both are the bodies replaced by Human Rights Council in 2006. Human Rights council responsible for protection of all human rights and fundamental freedoms. Human Rights for all without distinction of any kind and in fair and equal manner. Human Rights Council shall review the work and functioning of subsidiary bodies in every five years after coming into is existence. The Headquarter of the Human Rights Council is in Geneva, Switzerland.

The United Nations Security council is made up of 47 member’s states who are elected by a Majority of members of the United Nations General Assembly in a direct and secret ballot. The contribution of candidate states to the promotion and preservation of Human rights, as well as their voluntary pledges and obligations in this regard, are taken into account by the general assembly. The quorum of the assembly is 2/3rd majority of members present and voting. The Council’s Membership is based on equitable geographical distribution. Seats distributed as follows:-
1.) African States: 13 seats.
2.) Asia-Pacific States: 13 seats.
3.) Latin American and Caribbean States: 8 seats.
4.) Western European and other States: 7 seats.
5.) Eastern European States: 6 seats.
Members of the council are elected for three-year terms and are not eligible for re-election after serving two terms in a row.


  • Promote human rights education and learning as well as advisory services, technical assistance, capacity building in consultation with and consent of member states.
  • Human Rights Commission make recommendations to general assembly for further development of International law in field of human rights.
  • Human Rights Commission function is forum for dialogue on all human rights issues.
  • Human Rights Commission promote full implementation of human rights obligation taken by states.
  • To undertake universal periodic review of fulfillment by each state of its human rights obligations and commitments.
  • To contribute and cooperate towards prevention of human rights violations and respond to human rights emergencies.
  • To work in close co-operation with governments, regional obligations, national human rights institutions and civil society.
  • To make recommendation for promotion and protection of human rights.
  • To submit an annual report to the general assembly.

1.) Universal Periodic Review:-

  • Review conducted by Universal Periodic Review working group consisting of 47 members and is chaired by president of the council.
  • State primary responsibility to implement recommendation of universal periodic review.
  • Universal Periodic Review involves a review of human rights records of all members od united nations once in every four years.
  • Universal Periodic Review provides an opportunity to all states to declare actions taken to improve the human rights situations in their countries for enjoyment of human rights.
  • The ultimate goal of universal periodic review is a improvement of human rights situation in every country.
  • To provide technical assistance to states and enhance their capacity to deal effectively with human rights challenge.

2.) Complaint Procedure:-

  • Addresses communication, submitted by individual groups, or non – governmental organization.
  • Purpose to address gross violation of all human rights and fundamental freedoms in any part of the world.
  • Examine written communications.
  • They give report to Human Right Council.

3.) Special procedure:-

  • It is established by Human Rights Council.
  • It is to address specific country situations or theme related issue all over the world.
  • Special procedure with support of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) undertake country visits.
  • They act on individual cases by sending communication to states.
  • They give report to Human Rights Council.
  • Expert consultations.
  • Conduct thematic studies.

4.) Advisory Committee:-

  • To provide expert advice at Human Rights Council Direction.
  • This committee is composed of 18 independent experts.
  • Experts elected for three years and re-elected once.
  • They also provide expertise to the council.
  • It is to propose for further research proposals.
  • To implement promotion and protection of Human Rights.

Aishwarya Says:

I have always been against Glorifying Over Work and therefore, in the year 2021, I have decided to launch this campaign “Balancing Life”and talk about this wrong practice, that we have been following since last few years. I will be talking to and interviewing around 1 lakh people in the coming 2021 and publish their interview regarding their opinion on glamourising Over Work.

If you are interested in participating in the same, do let me know.

Do follow me on FacebookTwitter  Youtube and Instagram.

The copyright of this Article belongs exclusively to Ms. Aishwarya Sandeep. Reproduction of the same, without permission will amount to Copyright Infringement. Appropriate Legal Action under the Indian Laws will be taken.

If you would also like to contribute to my website, then do share your articles or poems at

We also have a Facebook Group Restarter Moms for Mothers or Women who would like to rejoin their careers post a career break or women who are enterpreneurs

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