The most important and Second crucial organ of the government is the executive. It is that organ of the government which implements the laws passed by the legislature and the policies of the government.
In a broad and collective sense, the executive organ embraces the aggregate or totality of all the functionaries and agencies which are concerned with the execution of the will of the state as that will has been formulated and expressed in terms of law.
In its broadest sense, the executive departments consists of all government officials except those acting in legislative or judicial capacity. It includes all the agencies of government that are concerned with the execution of the states will as expressed in terms of law.
TWO PARTS OF EXECUTIVE
1.) Political Executive
2.) Permanent Executive
1.) POLITICAL EXECUTIVE
Its consists of a executive head of the state and other heads of the executive departments is ministers. They are mostly elected representatives of the people and responsible for all their decisions and policies before the public. Political executive work for a fixed period tenure of about five years. It acts as temporary executive in the sense that it changes after every section. Amateurs, non experts and non professionals are among the minister. Their job is to create policies and get them passed by the legislature.
2.) PERMANENT EXECUTIVE
It consists of civil servants from the lowest to the highest levels. Civil servants are politically unaffiliated. They owe no political party allegiance. Their job is to carry out the governments laws and programmes without regard for political considerations. They are people who have received special education and training. They are professionals and specialist. They provide professional advice and opinions to the political administration, as well as gather, classify and present data on which the later takes all decisions. Civil servants remain in office till the attainment of the retirement age , usually upto the age of 55-60 years. They get regular and fixed salaries.
FUNCTIONS OF THE EXECUTIVE
a) Enforcement of laws:-
The primary function of the executive is to enforce laws and to maintain law and order in the state. Each government department is in charge of enforcing the laws and policies that apply to it’s activity. For maintaining law and order in the state, the executive organizes and maintains the police force.
b) Appointment making functions:-
All major appointments are made by the chief executive. The members of the civil service are also appointed by the chief executive. His is usually done on the recommendation of a a service recruitment commission. The appointments are done by the chief executive in accordance with the recommendation of UPSC.
c) Treaty- making functions:-
It is the responsibility of the executive to decide as to which treaty are to be signed with which other country. Treaties are negotiated by the executive branch in common conformity with the International Lawand also in accordance with the provisions of the constitution of the state. Each treaty is signed by a member of the executive.
d) Defence, War And Peace functions:-
One of the key function of the state is to defend and preserve the unity and integrity of the country and to protect it in the event of an external aggression or war. To orgnise military for the state, to prepare for and fight for the war, if it becomes necessary, and to negotiates and sign peace settlement after every war, are the functions performed by the executive.
The executive is the final judge of the nature of the threat to the security of the country. The chief executive of the state is also supreme commanders of the armed forces of the state.
e) Foreign policy-making and conduct of foreign relations:-
The executive formulates the goals of national intrest and fixed the priorities. It first formulates the foreign policy of the nation and then implements it for securing the defined goals of national intrest. The executive appoints the ambassadors of the state to other states.
f) Policy making:-
Modern welfare state has to carry out a large number of functions for securing the socio-economic cultural development of its people. It is the executive which undertakes the task of policy making and developmental planning.
g) Functions related to law making:-
Law making is primarily the function of the legislature. In a parliamentary system the ministers are also members of the legislature and they play a leading role in law making. The bills passed by the legislature becomes law only after these ar signed by the head of the state.
h) Law making under the system of delegated legislation:-
The system of delegated legislation has considerably increased the law-making role of the executive. The legislature delegated some of it’s legislative powers to the executive under this arrangement. On the basis of these abilities, executive creates rules.
I have always been against Glorifying Over Work and therefore, in the year 2021, I have decided to launch this campaign “Balancing Life”and talk about this wrong practice, that we have been following since last few years. I will be talking to and interviewing around 1 lakh people in the coming 2021 and publish their interview regarding their opinion on glamourising Over Work.
If you are interested in participating in the same, do let me know.
The copyright of this Article belongs exclusively to Ms. Aishwarya Sandeep. Reproduction of the same, without permission will amount to Copyright Infringement. Appropriate Legal Action under the Indian Laws will be taken.
If you would also like to contribute to my website, then do share your articles or poems at firstname.lastname@example.org
We also have a Facebook Group Restarter Moms for Mothers or Women who would like to rejoin their careers post a career break or women who are enterpreneurs.