The act of leaving a resident country or place of residence with the intention of settling elsewhere is known as emigration (to permanently leave a country). On the other hand, immigration refers to the movement of individuals from one country to another (to permanently move to a country). As a result, one may emigrate from one’s home nation to immigrate to another. Both are actions of cross-national migration. Demographers look at the variables that cause people to be driven out of one place and drawn to another. There may be a desire to flee bad circumstances such as a lack of land or employment opportunities, or unequal treatment. People are attracted to opportunities that are available elsewhere. Being a refugee, fleeing terrible conditions, and seeking asylum to obtain refugee status in a foreign nation , may lead to permanent emigration. Forced displacement refers to people who are compelled to leave their home nation, such as a result of forced population transfers or ethnic cleansing threats.
The impassioned discussion over international migration has many sides. While most of it is concerned with the economic costs and benefits of migration in both recipient and sending nations, little is known about the human side of the storey. The majority of what we know is based on anecdotal evidence, such as a disproportionate attention on a visible crime committed by one immigrant or heart-breaking accounts of what happens to illegal migrants who do not arrive at their intended destinations. While these tales are relevant, they are not based on large-scale or representative data that may be used to guide policy discussions. International migrants frequently leave their families behind in their home countries due to the high cost of moving the entire family or rigorous immigration policies and unknown conditions in the destinations. Migrants frequently send money back home (known as remittances), which helps people who remain behind by raising their consumption and improving their living conditions. At the same time, migration interrupts family life, which may have negative consequences for migrant-sending households in their home nations. Previous research has shown that migration can boost people’s salaries as well as their happiness levels.
Demographers distinguish between variables that drive individuals out and those that bring them in at the point of origin. Migration motivations can be either incentives that entice someone to leave, known as pull factors, or events that encourage a person to leave, known as push factors. There are many factors which affect emigration like :-
Push factors :-
- Living conditions are poor.
- a scarcity of work or business possibilities
- Education possibilities are limited.
- Inadequate political or religious freedom
- Threats of arrest or repercussions
- Persecution or intolerance based on race, religion, gender, or sexual orientation are all examples of discrimination.
- Lack of religious freedom or the ability to choose no religion.
- Inability to find a marital partner There is a scarcity of farmland, and it is difficult to start new farms (historically)
- Legal or political conditions that are oppressive
- The economy is struggling or failing.
- Terrorism, military draught, or warfare
- Drought or famine
- Cultural clashes with other cultures
- Armed force or coercion are used to expel people.
Pull Factors :-
- Living situations that are better
- Letters of recommendation from relatives or informants who have already relocated; Chain migration
- Possibilities for obtaining farms for oneself and children have improved.
- Farmland can be purchased for a low price.
- Obtaining wealth quickly (as in a gold rush)
- Job opportunities are increasing.
- Increased pay is promised.
- Travel that has been pre-paid (as from relatives)
- Improved welfare programmes
- Improved educational institutions Chain migration allows you to join relatives who have previously relocated.
- Creating a new country (historically)
- Creating specific religious or cultural communities
- Political liberty
- Opportunities for cultural exploration
- Having a better chance of finding a spouse
- Climate that is favourable
- It’s simple to get across the line.
- Tariff reduction.
I have always been against Glorifying Over Work and therefore, in the year 2021, I have decided to launch this campaign “Balancing Life”and talk about this wrong practice, that we have been following since last few years. I will be talking to and interviewing around 1 lakh people in the coming 2021 and publish their interview regarding their opinion on glamourising Over Work.
If you are interested in participating in the same, do let me know.
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