Modern History- Social and Religious movements


The Brahmo Samaj was established by Raja Rammohan Roy on 20 August 1828 at Calcutta. He was born in 1774 at Radhanagar, a small village in Bengal. He learnt many languages like Arabic, Persian, English, French, Latin, Greek, etc. He also studied several religious philosophies like those of Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sufism. He was deeply influenced by English language and literature. He believed in the unity of God and was against idol-worship, rituals and blind faith. He had to struggle hard against Orthodox Hindu.

Hinduism and Hindu society was in a miserable shape at that time.

Raja Rammohan Roy and his Brahmo Samaj took up the cause of Hindu religion and society, attempt to reform them. The Brahmo Samaj gave new life to Indian society in it’s all sphere on the basis of the Vedas and Upanishads. The Brahmo Samaj led a crusade against the practice of Sati system, polygamy, child marriage, caste system, purdah system,
untouchability and use of intoxicants. It adopted inter-caste marriage, education of women, widow remarriage, etc. It succeeded in creating a momentum against these social evils in Bengal. After the death of Raja Rammohan Roy the Brahmo Samaj was gradually divided into several sects. Maharashi Devendra Tagore established the Adi Brahmo Samaj. Keshab Chandra Sen established the Bhartiya Brahmo Samaj. Each of them attempt to reform the Hindu religion and society. The leaders of the Brahmo Samaj also worked for the welfare of the peasants, library of the press, social legislation, etc. The Brahmo Samaj also participated in building national sentiment among the Indian. It glorified the ancient culture of India, developed confidence among Indians towards their own religion and culture. Thus, the Brahmo Samaj helped in social and religious reforms in India. It created an intellectual awaking among them. It also helped in modernizing India.


The childhood name of Swami Dayanand Saraswati was Mulshankar. He was born at Tankara in Gujarat in a conservative Brahman family in 1824. He lost his faith in idol-worship at an early age. He left home in 1845 and travelled all over India as a sanyasi till 1861. In the same year he met an aesthetic Swami Vrajanand at mathura and became his disciple and he studied Vedas there. He left his guru after completing his study and took up the mission of spreading true Hindu religion and culture all over India. He established the Arya Samaj first at Bombay in 1875 and travelled all over India to propagate his views and established Arya Samaj organisations at different places for the same purpose. In the beginning,the Arya Samaj kept on the three following principles :
The Arya Samaj would accept only the Vedas as a final truth.
Every member of the Arya Samaj would contribute 1/100 part of his income towards the Samaj.
The educational institutions established by the Arya Samaj would give education only in the learning of Vedas.

The Arya Samaj remarkable useful work for reforming the Hindu society and religion, Swami Dayanand claimed that true knowledge is only in the Vedas. The Arya Samaj became a fanatic supporter of Hinduism and was called Militant Hinduism. It also helped in the educational development of Indians and affected National Movements. The Arya Samaj opposed child marriage, polygamy, purdah system, Sati system, etc. Inter-caste marriage and inter-dining were practiced by the members of the Arya Samaj. It started to take back the converted Muslims and Christians into Hindu fold after purifying them which was called Shuddhi Movement.

The Arya Samaj has established a large number of educational institutions in India, particularly in the North. Gurukula, kanya Gurukuls and DAV Schools and colleges have been established by the Arya Samaj. Swami Dayanand was the first man to use the term Swaraj. He was the first to insist on people using only swadeshi things, manufactured in India and discarding foreign things. He was first to recognise Hindi as the national language of India. The Arya Samaj, thus made a remarkable contribution towards Indian religion, society, education and national consciousness. The Arya Samaj is still a living movement among the poors of India.

Aishwarya Says:

I have always been against Glorifying Over Work and therefore, in the year 2021, I have decided to launch this campaign “Balancing Life”and talk about this wrong practice, that we have been following since last few years. I will be talking to and interviewing around 1 lakh people in the coming 2021 and publish their interview regarding their opinion on glamourising Over Work.

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