State List and Responsibility of the State

The 7th Schedule talks about three lists, List-I (Union List), List-II (State List) and List-III (Concurrent List). Various matters are divided upon the centre and the states and the laws and decisions on some matters are formed jointly by the Centre and the states; the matters on which laws are made by both central and state governments are included in the concurrent list. 

Laws and decisions of those matters which come under the state list are to be formed only be the states and the central government does not have any say in these matters except during the time of emergencies. 

There were 66 matters under the state list when it was formed. Currently there are 61 topics which include police, trade, agriculture, irrigation, prisons, public health and sanitation, betting, gas and gas-works, markets to name a few. Five subjects which were originally under State list were transferred to concurrent list. These were education, forests, weights and measures, protection of wild animals and birds, and administration of justice. 

Unitary and Federal Government 

There are two types of governments : Unitary and Federal Government. Unitary governments are those where the powers are centralised or all of the power is concentrated to a single central government. Classic examples of unitary governments are France, Japan, Ireland and China. Federal governments are those where the power is divided among the Centre and various states. USA, Australia Switzerland and Malaysia follow the federal system. 

India follows federal governmental system except during the time of Emergencies where the governmental system changes to unitary form and maximum power is given to the central government. The powers of centre and state are divided into 3 different heads : Legislative relations, administrative relations and financial relations. 

Extraordinary Circumstances 

Under normal circumstances if new laws concerning matters that come under state list is made by the central government, it will become void but under extraordinary circumstances like National Emergency or Presidents Rule, if the Rajya Sabha feels that a subject matter under the state list is of national importance, or if the state requests that a subject matter be removed from the list or if while implementing international agreements there has to be some changes to be done then it will be done. 

Responsibilities of State Government 

The various responsibilities that come under the state governments include 

  • The states have to maintain peace and order among the public. The police come under state government so they can control the public if there is any threat to public order.
  • Internal security: It is the duty of the state to maintain internal security, law and order. 
  • Education: Ensuring education and providing opportunities to the underprivileged, employment of college staff and school staff, maintaining infrastructure of universities and colleges. 
  • Transport: State government runs the bus, ferries, and local trains 
  • Finance : The state has control over taxes, expenditure, borrowing etc 
  • Water Supply: Water for irrigation to farmers, drinking water supply comes under the responsibility of the State Government. 

Hence the state has many responsibilities, including public welfare. The distribution of powers to state governments helps keep our nation with such a vast population and with such diverse culture away from chaos and maintain harmony and internal peace. 

Aishwarya Says:

I have always been against Glorifying Over Work and therefore, in the year 2021, I have decided to launch this campaign “Balancing Life”and talk about this wrong practice, that we have been following since last few years. I will be talking to and interviewing around 1 lakh people in the coming 2021 and publish their interview regarding their opinion on glamourising Over Work.

If you are interested in participating in the same, do let me know.

Do follow me on FacebookTwitter  Youtube and Instagram.

The copyright of this Article belongs exclusively to Ms. Aishwarya Sandeep. Reproduction of the same, without permission will amount to Copyright Infringement. Appropriate Legal Action under the Indian Laws will be taken.

If you would also like to contribute to my website, then do share your articles or poems at adv.aishwaryasandeep@gmail.com

We also have a

Aishwarya Says:

I have always been against Glorifying Over Work and therefore, in the year 2021, I have decided to launch this campaign “Balancing Life”and talk about this wrong practice, that we have been following since last few years. I will be talking to and interviewing around 1 lakh people in the coming 2021 and publish their interview regarding their opinion on glamourising Over Work.

If you are interested in participating in the same, do let me know.

Do follow me on FacebookTwitter  Youtube and Instagram.

The copyright of this Article belongs exclusively to Ms. Aishwarya Sandeep. Reproduction of the same, without permission will amount to Copyright Infringement. Appropriate Legal Action under the Indian Laws will be taken.

If you would also like to contribute to my website, then do share your articles or poems at adv.aishwaryasandeep@gmail.com

We also have a Facebook Group Restarter Moms for Mothers or Women who would like to rejoin their careers post a career break or women who are enterpreneurs.

You may also like to read:

Facebook Group Restarter Moms for Mothers or Women who would like to rejoin their careers post a career break or women who are enterpreneurs.

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