PARAMETERS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Parameters of sustainable development refer to the guiding principles that
a) help in understanding the concept of sustainable development.
b) point out the problems associated with it
c) help to take active policy measures based on them
The parameters include inter and intra-generational equity, carrying capacity and gender inequality.
INTER- GENERATIONAL EQUITY
It refers to the use of Earth’s resources between generations in a manner that the present generation does not consume it completely to its exhaustion.
Inter-generational equity, therefore, is presented mainly as a value concept, viewing the human community as a partnership among all generations. In recent times, the ethical principles lying behind inter-generational equity have become the constituting pillars of the concept of sustainable development.
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PRINCIPLES OF INTER-GENERATIONAL EQUITY
Three principles from the basis of inter-generational equity are as follows-
1. Conservation of Option- Each generation should be required to conserve the diversity of the natural and cultural resource base. It is so because the generation does not unduly restrict the options available to future generations in solving their problems and satisfying their own values and should also be entitled to diversity comparable to that enjoyed by previous generations. This principle is called ‘conservation of options’
2. Conservation of Quality- Each generation should be required to maintain the quality of the planet, so that it is passed on in no worse condition than that, in which it was received and should also be entitled to planetary quality comparable to that enjoyed by previous generations. This is the principle of ‘conservation of quality’.
3. Conservation of Access- Each generation should provide its members with equitable rights of access to the legacy of past generations and should conserve this access for future generations. This is the principle of ‘conservation of accesses.
Another concept of equity in resource use is referred to as ‘intra-generational equity’, which is fair in utilization of resources among human members of present generations, both domestically and globally. The term equity is also used in connection with the idea that all people throughout the community, be it a town or the entire world, have the same basic needs that must be taken into consideration. This concept is often referred to as intra-generational equity, meaning justice among the present population.
The preservation (or acquisition) of basic human rights and the fulfillment of basic human needs are the fundamental driving forces behind economic transactions, social interactions and resource consumption.
Carrying capacity refers to the number of individuals who can be supported in a given area within natural resource limits, without degrading the natural, social, cultural and economic environment for present and future generations. The carrying capacity for a given area is not fixed. It can be altered by improved technology, but mostly it is changed for the worse by pressure which accompanies a population increase.
An important element of sustainable development is the need to manage the natural resources based on which human activity depends. Due to the gender division of labor in society, women and men have different needs and uses of natural resources. The different responsibilities imposed by societies on females and males have implications for how they interact with their local environment.
Thus the overall concept of sustainable development is that to conserve the resources in the most efficient manner so that no wastage is done of the limited resources that is available in the environment and thus everyone should become aware of their rights and duties so that they have the fair bit of knowledge of how the conservation of these resources can be effectively done and to meet the demands of the present generation without compromising the needs of the future generation. So the three R’s which are the basic principle of Sustainable Development should be followed rigorously by the people so that they can contribute to their fullest in the conservation of resources in the society and no problem arises with the usage of resources among all the sections of the society. The formation of the resources takes millions of years and so once they are exhausted they cannot be brought into their present form so every people in the society should contribute to their fullest in the society and so as to make contribution in the progress and development of society.
STRATEGIES FOR ACHIEVING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
The achievement of sustainability in national development requires a strategic approach, which is both long-term in its perspective and integrated or ‘joined up’ in linking various development processes so that they are as sophisticated as the challenges are complex. Following efforts are being made to achieve sustainable development
Lifestyles define us; the way we live our lives, what we do, with whom; where, how and how and what we used to do it. This includes everything from the food we eat and how we interact with others to the way we get around
Creating sustainable lifestyles means thinking our ways of living, how we buy, what we consume and how we organize our daily life. It is about transforming our societies and living in balance with our natural environment.
Population is very closely related with sustainable development, population growth, population ageing and decline, as well as migration and urbanization affect virtually all development objectives that are on the top of national and global development agendas.
Conservation, like development, is for people, while development aims to achieve human goals largely through use of the biosphere, conservation aims to achieve them by ensuring that such use can continue. Conservation’s concern for maintenance and sustainability is a rational response to the nature of living resources and also an ethical imperative, expressed in the belief that ‘we have not inherited the Earth from our parents, we have borrowed it from our children.
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND MOVEMENTS IN INDIA
The environmental issues that are faced by the country are related to the problems of depletion of water, pollution of river , soil, air etc, mismanagement of available resources in the country and this results in many economic ,social, political, cultural etc problems in the country and the unequal distribution of resources add further woes. The poorest of the poor sections of the society are the worst sufferers among all the sections of the society because they suffer from the discrimination of the usage of resources and unequal distribution. Also they do not have the access to potable water and proper shelter. The natural disasters such as cyclones, droughts, floods etc further detoriates the conditions in the country and the poor citizens are the worst victims. Deforestation on large scale for the building up the industries, housing facilities, working places etc is the main cause for the environmental degradation in India .Also the honking of the vehicles on a large scale and the air pollution created by these vehicles particularly in the megacities of the country creates lots of tension and irritation among all the sections of the people. The river pollution particularly the pollution of the major rivers of the country such as Ganga, Yamuna, Narmada, Godavari, Chambal etc are the major contributors of the environmental degradation in India .Throwing of plastics in the river, religious items ,industrial wastes, etc results in the degradation of the quality of these major rivers. Intra Migration and Inter Migration in the country put burden on the available resources in the country and results in the degradation of the quality of water ,air, soil, etc because such a large population deteriorates such resources by increasing the level of wastes and pollution in the society.Take the recent cases of epidemics that happened in India such as Uttrakhand Floods,Kerala Floods,Jammu Kashmir Floods,Gujarat Earthquake,Odisha and Andhra Pradesh Cyclone ,recently Bengal and Odisha Cyclones etc have shown that how nature takes the revenge when the situation gets out of control and there is continous degradation of natural resources in the society.
Some of the environmental movements that took place in India are as follows-
1. Bishnoi Movement-It took place in the period of 1700s and stated from a place called Khejarli in Marwar Region of Rajasthan.It’s main aim was to save sacred trees from being cut down by the king’s soldiers for a new palace whose leaders were Amrita Devi alongwith Bishnoi Villagers.
2. Chipko Movement-It took place in the year 1973 and started from the Chamoli District of Uttrakhand. The main objective of the movement was to protect the trees on the Himalayan Slopes from the axes of contractors of the forest. Its main leaders were Sundarlal Bahuguna, Gauri Devi,Sudesha Devi,Chandi Prasad Bhatt etc.
3. Save Silent Valley Movement- It was started in the year 1978 from the evergreen place of Palakkad district of Kerala. The main objective of the movement was to protect the Silent Valley the moist evergreen forest from being destroyed by a hydroelectric project.
4. Jungle Bachao Andolan- It was started in the year 1982 from the place called Singh bhum District of Bihar. The main objective of the movement was to move against government’s decision to replace the natural Sal forest with Teak whose leaders were the Tribal’s of Singh bhum.
5. Appiko Movement- It started in the year 1983 from the place called Uttara Kannada and Shimoga districts of Karnataka. The main objectives of the movement were against the felling and commercialization of natural forest and the ruin of ancient livelihood. The movement was started by Appiko’s greatest strengths lie in it being neither driven by a personality nor having been formally institutionalized. However, it does have a facilitator in Pandurang Hegde. He helped launch the movement in 1983.
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