Independent India paid due attention to the problem of poverty and undertook many measures and launched many schemes, programmes and projects for the upliftment of the poor.
Some of the poverty alleviation programmes launched from time to time by the government are discussed below-
. INTEGRATED RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME(IRDA) 1978-79
. DEVELOPMENT OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN IN RURAL AREAS(DWACRA)-1979
. NATIONAL RURAL EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMME(NREP)
.RURAL LANDLESS EMPLOYMENT GUARANTEE PROGRAMME(RLEGP)
. JAWAHAR ROZGAR YOJANA(IRY) 1989
. DROUGHT PRONE AREAS PROGRAMME (DPAP) (1972-73
. TRAINING OF RURAL YOUTH FOR SELF-EMPLOYMENT(TRYSE) 1979
. SWARNJAYANTI GRAM SWAROJGAR YOJANA(SSGY) 1999
. PRIME MINISTER’S ROJGAR YOJANA(PMRY) 1993
K Nageswara Rao, Poverty in India and Regional Dimensions Deep and Deep Publication
2005 page no 121 Ibid Page No 121 , Ibid Page No 213, Ibid Page No 123, Ibid Page No 197, Ibid Page No 212
. NATIONAL FOOD FOR WORK PROGRAMME(NFWP) 2004
. PRADHAN MANTRI GRAM SADAK YOJANA 2000
Closely associated with the problem of poverty is the problem of unemployment because when people remain idle they become poor. If there are needs to be satisfied,then men must be emloyed in satisfying them. Unemployment leads not only to suffering and privation but also affects adversely the social organisation which is the main interest of Sociologists.
” Unemployment is forced and involuntary seperation from remunerative work or the part of the normal working force during normal working time, at normal wages and under normal conditions.” –Fairchild
” A condition in which an individual is not in a state of remunerative occupation despite his desire to do so.” –D’Mello
”Unemployment is a state of worklessness for a man fit and willing to work, that is, it is a condition of involuntary and not voluntary idleness.”
TYPES OF UNEMPLOYMENT-
According to Champaran Unemployment is of two kinds-
1.SUBJECTIVE UNEMPLOYMENT-Subjective unemployment is caused by physical and mental problems of an individual like Voluntary Unemployment where the worker voluntarily withdraws himself from the work.
2.OBJECTIVE EMPLOYMENT- Objective unemployment is of many types. These different types are mentioned below:
. SEASONAL UNEMPLOYMENT- Workers get job only for a certain period of the year or in a particular season, when the season is over labourers become idle and he is left with no work. Eventually they have to wait for the next season to come and find some work.
. AGRICULTURAL UNEMPLOYMENT- This kind of unemployment is a result of the very seasonal nature of agricultural work, lack of demand for homemade products,sub – divisions of landholdings etc.
. TECHNOLOGICAL AND FRICTIONAL UNEMPLOYMENT- Technological unemployment is caused due to ” friction” ie; an imbalance between the supply of labours and the demand for it. This kind of change results in closing of certain factories leaving behind a trait of unemployment.
. CYCLICAL UNEMPLOYMENT- Due to the trade cycles; booms, reversions, and depressions are some basic phenomenon of the business world. Such ups and downs, affect the volume of unemployment which is directly related to business cycle.
. EDUCATIONAL UNEMPLOYMENT –A close relation exists between the job oppurtunities and the system of education. The Kothari Commission(1964-66) admitted long back that there is a wide gulf between ” the between ” the contents of the present education and purposes and the concerns of National Development.” Hence, every year we are producing thousands of degree holders only to join the rank of uneducated unemployment youths.
. UNDER-EMPLOYMENT OR INVOLUNTARY UNEMPLOYMENT- It refers to a condition in which the self-employed working people are not able to work to their full capacity.
. STRUCTURAL OR OPEN UNEMPLOYMENT – It is a result of the lack of complementary resources especially capital. Open unemployment occurs when a large labour force does not get work oppurtynities that may fetch them regular income.
(Source of information – Ajit Kumar Sinha , Raj Kumar Sen, Economics Of Amartya Sen and Deep and Deep Publications)
CAUSES OF UNEMPLOYMENT
According to GR Madan there are two main types of unemployment:
A) INDIVIDUAL OR PERSONAL FACTORS
.Illness or Physical Disability
B) EXTERNAL FACTORS OR TECHNOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS
. Trade Cycles
. Enormous Increase In Population
. Technological Advancement
. Slow Economic Growth Rate
. Backwardness Of Indian Agriculture
C) OTHER CAUSES
. Inadequate Facilities For Self- Employment
. Loopholes In Educational System
. Unwillingness To Accept Blue Collared Jobs
. Stagnation To One Geographic Location
. Improper Utilisation Of Manpower
REMEDIAL MEASURES FOR UNEMPLOYMENT
The problem of unemployment is spreading like cancer in the society. The complex natured issue of unemployment will have to be handled in a plan manner. No single measure can provide sure remedy to this problem. Some solutions to the problem of unemployment are mentioned below:
1. POPULATION CONTROL
2. PROMOTING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
. Iniation Of Irrigation Project To Generate Employment In Agricultural Sector
. Development Of Fisheries , Forest and Animal Husbandary.
. Encouragement Of Cottage And Household Industries
. Promoting Growth Of Commercial Crops Like Tea, Coffee, Tobacco, Cashews, Groundnets etc.
3. INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT:
. Development Of Large Scale Industries
. Development Of Small Scale Industries
. Keeping a check on multinational companies.
4. EDUCATIONAL REFORMS
Like practical training, role of employment exchange agencies , vocational training and guidance to youth.
5. GENERATION OF EMPLOYMENT OPPURTUNITIES BY INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI) , RETAIL SECTOR ETC.
6. EMPLOYMENT GUARANTEE ACT 2005 ( NATIONAL RURAL EMPLOYMENT GUARANTEE ACT – This Act provides at least 100 days guaranteed employment every year to at least one adult member per family.
Though unemployment is universal, but in India it is more marked. The number of total unemployed youth with at least matriculation qualification is put about at five million. This included about 1.5 million unemployed graduates. A study undertaken by the Manpower Division of the Directorate Of Employment Exchange, Ministry Of Labour and Employment of the pattern of unemployment among graduates showed that about 93 per cent of the unemployed graduates seeking employment were men and about 7 per cent women. 48.5 percent of the unemployment graduates were BA’S , 22.7 BSC’S and 12.8 per cent BCom’s .
Unemployment is also widespread among the professionaly trained like engineer’s, doctors and other technically qualified people. No reliabe figures are available about unemployment among the illeterate people- those who earn their bread through daily wages. The statistics maintained by The Employment Exchanges do not give any exact idea of the level of unemployment because firstly, The Employment Exchanges cover mainly urban areas , secondly because all the unemployed people do not get themselves registered and thirdly, because some of the registrants are already employed and seek better jobs.
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