Old Aged (Senior Citizens) In India- Old aged people forms the most important part of the society. They need special care and support in terms of wealth,socially,mentally,physically,emotionally etc by their younger ones because they are the ones who are vulnerable to many problems and social and emotional tensions because of their old age and so each and every younger people should take a great amount of care for them so that they do don’t feel lonely,depressed,sad and full of anxieties and so great amount of care and affection towards them should be shown to them by their younger ones. The old people are considered burden by the family members who is not a great to be done but because of the busy schedule and selfish level of satisfaction by their younger leaves them feel lonely and depressed and they are seen as parasites to the family. Because of this reason, their family members put them in old age shelter homes which make them sad, cursing their own lives and depressed. Though great amount of care is taken by the members of the old age shelter homes but the real affection and care which they can get from their family seems to be missing from their personal lives. Also they are subjected to the vulgar comments from different sections of society and mental torture and sufferings. In case of disabled ones, they are the worst sufferers among all the sections of the society because already they are physically and mentally handicapped but the vulgar and sympathetic passed on them by the well able body people results in mental, emotional and social depression among them. Also the facilities provided to them in working places, institutional areas, railway stations,etc are really pathetic and because of which they have suffer from various kinds of problems that arises from it and so they become mentally and emotionally depressed. Also they face humiliation and degradation in the society. Health problems are supposed to be the major concern of a society as senior citizens are more prone to suffer from ill health than younger age groups. It is often claimed that senior citizens are accompanied by multiple illness and physical ailments .Besides physical illness; the senior citizens are more likely to be the victims of poor mental health. Mental disorders are very much associated with old age. Decline in mental ability makes them dependent. They are no longer having their trust in their own ability or judgments but still they want to tighten their grip over the younger ones. Sociologically, aging marks a form of transition from one set of social rules to another and such roles are difficult. However, in modern society, improved education, rapid technical changes and new forms of organization have often rendered obsolete the knowledge experience and wisdom of senior citizens. Once they retire, elderly people find that their children are not taking advice from them. Person with disabilities often have lower education accomplishments, poorer health conditions, higher poverty rates and less economic engagement than people without disabilities. They are not only by their bodies but by the social outlook towards them by the society. As per the Census 2011, in India, out of the total population of 121 crore, about 2.68 persons are ‘Disabled’ (2.21 % of the total population). Out of 2.68 crore, 1.5 crore are males and 1.18 crore are females. Majority (69%) of the disabled population resided in rural areas. Constitutional Frameworks for Disabled in India- Article 41 of the Directive Principles of State Policy states that State shall make effective provision for securing right to work, to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement, within the limits of its economic capacity and development. The subject of ‘relief of the disabled and unemployable’ is specified in state list of the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution. Legislations for Disabilities- Right of Persons with Disabilities Act 2016. The act replaces the Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1955.
‘’Person with disability’’ means a person with long term physical,mental,intellectual,or sensory impairments which, in interaction with barriers, hinders his full and effective participation in society equally with others. ‘’Person with Benchmark Disability ‘’ means a person with not less than 40% of a specified disability has not been defined in measurable terms and includes a person with a disability where specified disability has been defined in measurable terms, as certified by the certifying authority. Principles stated to be implemented for empowerment of persons with disabilities (PWD) are respect for the inherent dignity, individual autonomy including the freedom to make one’s own choices, and independence of persons. The principle reflects a paradigm shift in thinking about disability from a social welfare concern to human rights issue. So as to solve the problems of these two sections of the society various measures can be taken which are as follows
1) For blind people in education system the Braille system is an excellent way of solving the problems related to their education.Also wheelchairs and walking sticks can help them in a great way
2) For old age people family members should understand that they constitute the most important part of the society and so they should be dealt with great care and affection in the society. Recreational activities,chit-chatting.gossiping,sharing good memories with them and making them feel the most important part of someone’s life can give them great feeling and make them feel better and greater.
3) The disabled should not be made the subject of mockery and they should be treated with love and affection in the society so that they can live a peaceful and happy life and no problems arises for them in terms of humiliations and sufferings done to them. The government should make the stingest and strictest policies for the people who violate the terms and rights which includes mockery which is made to the disabled or old aged people, humiliation in public,degradation of their image in the society,discrimination in terms of sharing of the resources,discrimination in working places,railway stations,restaurants,educational institutions etc.The government also provide them relief packages in terms of education.health,etc and provide them the equal share and benefits in terms of sharing of resources and facilities in terms of education,societal equality etc.
4) The transportation facilities such as buses,taxis,railways,etc should be made free for them and they should be given reservations in educational sector,health sector,working places,political participation etc and social awareness and knowledge among the younger generations of the society for the love and affection towards them and their grievances and social problems should be addressed among them
5) Recreational activities,compettions related to sports,education,societal fuctions etc should be promoted among these sections as much as possible so that they can lead a cheerful and happy like all other people and their inner satisfaction and peace is always maintained.
These are some of the measures which can be taken by the everyone in the society so that these two sections of the society can live a peaceful and happy life. There are some of the rights which are given to the old aged people as follows-
. Right to life shall be protected by law.
. Right not to be subjected to inhuman treatment ”No one shall be subjected torture or to inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
. Right to Liberty ”Everyone has the right to liberty and personal security.
. Right to a fair hearing ”In the determination of his civil rights and obligations …. everyone is entitled to a fair and public hearing within a reasonable time by an independent and impartial tribunal established by law.”
. ”Civil rights and obligations”
. The right to freedom of thought and conscience.
. The right not to be discriminated against age.
. The right to property everyone is entitled to the peaceful enjoyment of his possessions
. The right to education
Protection Given To Old Aged People-Right of Persons with Disabilities Act 2016 .The Act replaces the Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995. It fulfills the obligations to the United National Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) to which India is a signatory. The Act came into force during December 2016Broad based Central and State Advisory Boards on Disability are to be set up to serve as apex policy making bodies at the Central and State level. Office of Chief Commissioner of Persons with Disabilities has been strengthened who will now be assisted by 2 Commissioners and an Advisory Committee comprising of not more than 11 members drawn from experts in various disabilities. The Chief Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities and the State Commissioners will act as regulatory bodies and Grievance Redressal agencies and also monitor implementation of the Act. District level committees will be constituted by the State Governments to address local concerns of PwD’s .Details of their constitution and the functions of such committees would be prescribed by the State Governments in the rules. 88B, 88D and 88DDB of Income Tax Act there are discount in tax for the elderly persons. 7 Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC) has also been providing several schemes for the benefit of aged persons, ie Jeevan Dhara Yojana, Jeevan Akshay Yojana, Senior Citizen Unit Yojana, Medical Insurance Yojana. Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act, 2007 is legislation, initiated by Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Government of India to provide more effective provision for maintenance and welfare of parents and senior citizens. It makes legal obligation for children and heirs to provide maintenance to senior citizens and parents, by monthly allowance.
These are some of the rights which are guaranteed to the old people and disabled people in India.
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