In the earlier time education was given in Gurukul system, students had to remain in their Guru’s house in order to receive education; they used to also help in the daily household work at guru’s place, by this method a strong bond would be developed between the student and the teacher. At that period education on mathematics, Sanskrit, scriptures, metaphysics and everything else that the student wanted to learn, there was no such specific age or period till when the student could remain in the Guru’s place, whenever the guru felt that the teaching was complete and the student was ready to handle things in the practical world then the student could return to his parent’s home. The special thing in this type of education system was that the education was not just confined to memorizing information in order to get more marks in exam, rather studies was more linked with nature and practical teachings.
In the modern times certain changes were implemented in the educational system first of all by introduction of English language in 1830s by Lord Macaulay, moreover the subjects such as metaphysics, philosophy were not considered in the curriculum anymore, and the education was confined just within the modern subjects where science and mathematics was very essential, the students link with the nature was broken as classes started to be organized only within the limits of four walls, the bond between the student and the teacher was no more that close.
First board that was setup in India was the Uttar Pradesh Board of High school and Intermediate Education. It was setup in 1921. In 1952 the following board was amended and renamed as Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), it was under the function of the board that all the decisions were taken with respect to the curriculum, syllabus, textbooks and examination. India including many other countries schools are also affiliated to the board today.
Education has been made compulsory for the children between the age group of 6 to 14 years of age and incorporated as a DPSP in Article 45 of the Constitution and in the recent past further initiative has also been taken by the government in order to make Right to Education as a fundamental right. The expenditure of the government on education purposes just comes to 3% of the GDP, which is very low.
Education was actually a State subject i.e. the state had authority to decide about all policies and the way to implement them but in this method the role of the government to make decisions was very limited as for deciding upon the standards of education and making any new amendments, therefore a amendment was bought in 1976 and Education was introduced in the Concurrent list but the state government do have power make decisions too.
The organization that announces policies and programmes and prepares a National Curriculum Framework is National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT). It implements educational strategies, curriculum, schemes and methods. States also have freedom in implementation of policies.
Government run their own schools in the land and building owned by the government. Majority of students belonging from urban middle class families get their education from these institutions as the fees are quite low as compared to other private managed schools. Some states like Kerala where initiative has been taken by the government in order to provide free education to the students. Kerala had also introduced Information Technology at high school level and was the first state to do. Then there is the CBSE and ICSE council that conduct their own exams and have their curriculum. The initiative that is taken by Kerala is an influencing step for the other states for example Gujarat and Karnataka has also taken step in order to provide free education to the students.
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